Moreover, our results are consistent
with the absorption spectra and particle size analysis data obtained for chemically prepared AuNPs that have a characteristic band at 524 nm, corresponding to a 20-nm particle size. To confirm the particular size and shape, synthesized AuNPs were further analyzed using TEM. TEM analysis TEM micrographs of the AuNPs revealed distinct, uniform molecules that were spherical in shape and well separated from learn more each other (Figure 6). The average particle size was estimated from counting more than 200 particles from TEM images, and the average size of homogeneous, spherical AuNPs was 20 nm. Interestingly, the AuNPs synthesized by Ganoderma spp. are spherical and smaller than those synthesized by other fungi, such as Colletotrichum spp.  and edible mushrooms ; most importantly, the prepared nanoparticles were homogeneous and spherical in shape. Figure 6 Size and shape analysis of AuNPs by TEM. Several fields were photographed and used to determine the size
and morphology of AuNPs (A). Selected area of electron diffraction pattern (B). Homogeneous nanoparticles with specific shapes are important for applications in biological and chemical sensing as well as for optical, medical, and electronic devices because the optical properties of AuNPs are dependent on the size and shape . Several studies have reported synthesis of various size AuNPs using different fungi. Fusarium oxysporum produced spherical and triangular morphologies of particles with a size range of 20 to 40 nm . Honary et al.  reported that Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium www.selleckchem.com/products/Adriamycin.html citrinum, and Penicillium waksmanii synthesized AuNPs that were fairly uniform with spherical shapes and had average diameters of 153.3, 172, and 160.1 nm, respectively. Alternatively, the fungi Aspergillus fumigates and Neurospora crassa produced average AuNP sizes of 25 and 32 nm, respectively. Effect of Glycogen branching enzyme AuNPs on cell viability The use of nontoxic
and biocompatible nanoparticles with capping materials is an important aspect of biomedical applications. Consequently, the cytotoxic effects and future health problems caused by nanoparticles must be considered in the engineering of such materials. It is essential to validate whether as-prepared AuNPs are toxic or biocompatible, because biomedical applications of any nanomaterial involves intentional exposure to nanoparticles. Therefore, selleck chemical understanding the properties of nanoparticles and their effects on the human body are crucial before they are clinically applied . The biocompatibility of both AuNPs was assessed by a proliferation assay, using mitochondrial functional activity as an indicator of cell viability. The cells were treated with different concentrations of both bio- and chem-AuNPs for 24 h, using the cell viability assay.