Methods: Forty-five patients were studied twice in the same week,

Methods: Forty-five patients were studied twice in the same week, i.e. once after the long and short interdialytic intervals, respectively. The four BI methods used were: (a) calf normalized resistivity (CNR) at a 5-kHz frequency, (b) whole-body multifrequency BI spectroscopy (MF-BIS) to estimate the normal hydration weight (NHWWBM), (c) whole-body MF-BIS to estimate the ratio of extracellular volume to total body water (wECV/wTBW), and (d) whole-body single-frequency (50 kHz) BI analysis to

compute the ratio of ECV (sfECV) to TBW (sfTBW). Results: The relationship (slope of the regressive line) between relative changes (%) in the above mentioned four BI parameters and differences in weight (kg) was most pronounced with CNR (5.2 +/- 1.6%/kg), followed by wECV/wTBW (1.7 +/- 0.7%/kg) and NHW WBM (0.73 +/- 0.2%/kg). Changes in sfECV/sfTBW and differences in weight were not correlated. Conclusions: KU-57788 cell line CNR is more sensitive than whole-body BIS for detecting differences in fluid status. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose: To investigate lysates from Acacia nilotica pods for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against a variety of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae as well as methicillin resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA).

Methods: ESBLs-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp were

isolated from clinical and environmental specimens and incubated with Acacia nilotica pod lysates. The bactericidal activity and cytotoxic effects of the lysates were evaluated while fast protein liquid chromatography (size exclusion FPLC)

MK2206 was used to identify the various compounds showing bactericidal activity.

Results: The lysates showed remarkable bactericidal properties, killing almost 100 % of the bacteria they were tested against, including neuropathogenic Escherichia coli, MRSA, and Klebsiella spp. MK-4827 The bactericidal activity was heat-resistant and showed minimal cytotoxic effects on human brain microvascular endothelial cells. FPLC revealed eight peaks, with three of them representing compounds that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: The lysate of Acacia nilotica pods is a potentially good candidate for the therapy of antibacterial-resistant bacteria, and would therefore require further studies.”
“The antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and chemical compositions of extracts from four Cameroonian woods were investigated. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using the scavenging of 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH.) and the oxygen uptake method. The total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay in which gallic acid was used as standard. Condensed tannins were evaluated by using the Stiasny method. Chemical compositions of the extracts were evaluated by GC-MS.

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Results: BCG-osis was documented in eight patients


Results: BCG-osis was documented in eight patients

following vaccination. Axillary adenitis was detected in seven patients, and hepatosplenomegaly was also found in seven patients. Immunological studies revealed low serum IgG, Pitavastatin IgM and IgA levels in all patients. Further investigations for enumeration of the lymphocyte sub-population revealed severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in all the patients. Three patients had T-B+NK-SCID, four had T-B-NK+SCID, and one had T-B+NK+SCID. Unfortunately, all the patients died due to the severe disseminated BCG infection.

Conclusions: Inoculation of live vaccines such as BCG should be postponed for a few months in suspected cases of primary immunodeficiency disease, until appropriate screening tests exclude this diagnosis; vaccination

should then be performed in those with an intact immune system. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hydroxyapatite (HAp)/polymer composites have been widely investigated for bone substitute applications in recent years. Inspired by the HM781-36B ic50 arrangement of ordered organic and inorganic layers in natural bones and seashells, for the first time a novel intercalated nanocomposite of gelatin and lamellar HAp was prepared via Solution intercalation process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the basal spacing of HAp lamellas enlarged by 3.0 nm from 3.1 nm to 6.1 nm, indicating that the gelatin molecules had been intercalated into the gallery of lamellar HAp. The microstructures Of pure lamellar HAp and intercalated gelatin/HAp nanocomposite were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Fourier transform

infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis revealed that there were chemical interactions between gelatin Molecules and HAp. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results confirmed that thermal stability of the composites was enhanced. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 3089-3094, 2009″
“This study was conducted to evaluate probiotic potato juice LY2606368 solubility dmso as a potential substrate for the production of Lactobacillus casei, and the change in the functionality of potato juice was monitored during fermentation. L. casei grew well in potato juice without nutrient supplementation, and lactic acid bacteria of fermented ‘Haryoung’ juice reached 1.7×10(9) CFU/mL after a 48 h fermentation. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the potato juices decreased after a 72 h fermentation, but fermented colored potato juice still maintained > 50% radical scavenging activity. The survival rate of L. casei fermented in’ Haryoung’ juice was 89.0% after exposure to an acidic condition, and L. casei in all fermented potato juice samples showed the ability (50-85%) to survive in the presence of bile. These results suggest that fermented potato juice might serve as a probiotic functional beverage for vegetarians or consumers who are allergic to dairy products.

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Test Q

Test Akt inhibitor results revealed that HRZ model is sufficient enough to predict short-time flexural creep performance of engineering products over wide range of stress. Test

results also confirmed the suitability of long fiber reinforced thermoplastic material for creep application over other considered materials. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3679-3686, 2011″
“Tumor suppressor proteins protect cells and tissues from malignant transformation. Among their diverse actions, many of these proteins interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the interactions of several tumor suppressors with microtubules and speculates on how disruption of microtubule-dependent processes may contribute to cancer development and spread. We conclude that several tumor suppressors stabilize microtubules and organize microtubule arrays, functions that are likely to be important in preventing tumorigenesis. How tumor suppressors link microtubule stability with cell fate, and how their mutation affects the response Ion Channel Ligand Library concentration of cancer cells to anti-microtubule chemotherapy drugs, remains unclear; these should prove fertile areas for future research.”
“We report a combinatorial synthesis study on the magnetic properties of sputter-deposited Co/Pd multilayers with high perpendicular anisotropy and high

remnant squareness for magnetic media applications such as magnetic logic systems, bit patterned media, magneto-optical recording, and multilevel three-dimensional (3D) magnetic media. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the multilayers originates from the interfacial anisotropy of the alloylike structure. The deposition conditions and subsequent microstructures of the multilayers are critical factors to determine the magnetic properties of the media. We investigated the dependence of Etomoxir cell line the magnetic properties on the thickness of Co and Pd layers the number of Co/Pd bilayers. For instance, we found that a 0.26-nm-thick

layer of Co would produce the highest coercivity value if paired with a 0.55-nm-thick Pd layer. Our results revealed that an Ar(+) milling could significantly increase the coercivity of the multilayer media. Further, we discovered that we could control the deposition pressure to achieve either granular or continuous media morphologies corresponding to exchange-coupled or decoupled grains, respectively. Finally, we used the combinatorial synthesis to tailor multilayers’ properties to engineer a eight-level three-layer 3D media. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544306]“
“Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was degraded in a two step process to obtain a valuable oil, consisting mainly of benzene.

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The intervention is blood transfusion versus observation Two hun

The intervention is blood transfusion versus observation. Two hundred and four participants (102 in each treatment assignment) will ensure 85% power to detect the effect necessary to recommend transfusion therapy (86% reduction), selleck chemicals after accounting for 10% drop out and 19% crossover rates. MRI examination of the brain is done at screening, immediately before randomization and study exit. Each randomly assigned participant receives a cognitive test battery at study entry, 12-18 months later, and study exit and an annual neurological examination. Blood

is obtained from all screened participants for a biologic repository containing serum and a renewable source of DNA. Conclusion: The SIT Trial could lead to a change in standard care practices for children affected with SCA and SCI, with a consequent reduction

in neurological morbidity.</.”
“Edge-emitting c-plane GaN/sapphire-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) sandwiched by two dielectric/metal hybrid reflectors on both sapphire and GaN surfaces were studied to determine their light emission polarization. The hybrid reflectors comprised dielectric multiple thin films and a metal layer. The metal layers of Au or Ag used in this study were designed to enhance the polarization ratio from S-polarization (transverse electric wave, TE) to P-polarization (transverse magnetic wave, TM). The two sets of optimized dielectric multi thin films served as matching layers

for wide-angle incident light AZD8055 cell line on both sapphire and GaN surfaces. To determine which reflector scheme would achieve a higher polarization ratio, simulations of the reflectance at the hybrid reflectors on sapphire C188-9 JAK/STAT inhibitor (or GaN) interface were performed before the fabrication of experimental LEDs. Compared with conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN/sapphire LEDs without dielectric/metal hybrid reflectors, the experimental LEDs exhibited higher polarization ratio (ITE-max/ITM-max) with r=2.174 (similar to 3.37 dB) at a wavelength of 460 nm. In contrast, the original polarized light (without dielectric/metal hybrid reflectors) was partially contributed (r=1.398) by C-HH or C-LH (C band to the heavy-hole sub-band or C band to the crystal-field split-off sub-band) transitions along the a-plane or m-plane direction. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516472]“
“In situ ethylene polymerizations with inorganic fillers were performed using catalyst based on titanium tetrachloride supported on polyethersulfone. The inorganic fillers used were MgO, TiO2, and CaCO3, which were pretreated with cocatalyst (methylaluminoxine) for better dispersion onto the polymer matrix.

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5-10)] “
“Performing real-time microscopy has been a vision

“Performing real-time microscopy has been a vision of endoscopists since the very early phases of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Confocal endomicroscopy, an adaption of confocal laser scanning microscopy, and endocytoscopy, an adaption of white-light microscopy, have been introduced into the endoscopic armamentarium in the past decade. Both techniques yield on-site histological information. Multiple trials have demonstrated

the ability of gastroenterologists to obtain and interpret microscopic images from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and also the hepatobiliary-pancreatic system, during endoscopy. Such microscopic information has LY411575 manufacturer been successfully used in expert hands to minimize sampling error by ‘smart’, microscopically targeted

biopsies and to guide endoscopic interventions. However, endomicroscopy is also unique in its ability to dynamically visualize cellular processes in their native environment free of artefacts. This ability enables fundamental insights into mechanisms of human diseases in clinical and translational science.”
“Background: Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH) in patients with spontaneous cervical Bindarit cell line artery dissection (sCAD).

Methods: 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 +/- 9.8 years) with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of Akt inhibitor sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner’s syndrome) and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into

hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images.

Results: The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p < 0.001 for trend). Agreement was moderate between VWH types in our study and the previously proposed time scheme of signal evolution for cerebral hemorrhage, Cohen’s kappa 0.43 (p < 0.001). There was a strong agreement of CMR VWH classification compared to the time scheme which was proposed for carotid intraplaque hematomas with Cohen’s kappa of 0.74 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Signal intensities of VWH in sCAD vary over time and multi-sequence CMR can help to determine the age of an arterial dissection. Furthermore, findings of this study suggest that the time course of carotid hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas.

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Staged surgery is recommended in patients above the age of 60 yea

Staged surgery is recommended in patients above the age of 60 years.”
“The hierarchical structure of bone makes the X-ray microdiffraction scanning techniques one of the most

effective tool to investigate the structural features of this tissue at different length scales: the atomic/nanometer scale of the X-ray scattering signals and the macroscopic scale of the scanned sample area. The potentiality of the microdiffraction approach has been verified also by investigations on tissue-engineered bone substitutes used to repair large hard bone Vorinostat in vitro defects. The aim of this review is to present the most representative and recent results obtained through high-resolution scanning microdiffraction techniques studying both natural and tissue-engineered bone. The rapid evolution of the instrumental set-ups and the advanced methods of data analysis are described. Recent examples in which X-ray microbeams were used for imaging quantitative features of natural bone tissue and engineered bone substitutes are presented along with the qualitative

and quantitative information extracted from the two-dimensional patterns collected on bone samples and on selleck chemicals llc ex vivo cell seeded bioceramic implants. Thanks to the microdiffraction approach, several aspects of the mechanisms leading to the generation of the new bone, coupled to the scaffold resorption in the tissue-engineered constructs, have been tentatively interpreted. The potential of X-ray microdiffraction as an imaging tool in the field of bone tissue engineering is discussed and the key role of high-spatial resolution, availability of automatic tools ( for dealing with the huge amount of experimental data) and advanced analysis techniques is elucidated. Finally, future perspectives

in the field are presented.”
“The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EEA) on GW786034 in vitro hyperglycaemia and diabetic nephropathy was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single-dose treatment of EEA to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats lowered the blood glucose level by 17.6% (p < 0.05) at 250 mg kg(-1) dose after 5 h post oral administration. Treatment of animals after 10 weeks of STZ-treatment with EEA (250 mg kg(-1)) for 21 days significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, % HbA1C, urea, uric acid and creatinine, and significantly increased the depressed serum insulin level. The extract exerted a significant inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase in a noncompetitive manner with an IC50 value of around 54 mu g mL(-1) and was found inhibitory to eye lens aldose reductase with an IC50 value of around 4.5 mu g mL(-1). The results suggest that EEA possesses antidiabetic effect associated with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibition.”
“Some reported studies have evaluated the dural sac in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) by computed tomography (CT) after conventional myelography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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71 for polyvascular disease

Conclusions: Patients wit

71 for polyvascular disease.

Conclusions: Patients with concomitant peripheral and coronary arterial disease are associated with increased Rho-kinase activity. Rho-kinase activity may be

a potential marker of atherosclerotic burden for patients with polyvascular disease.”
“Ibogaine, an alkaloid derived from the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans. Thus, it alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug, and despite evidence that ibogaine may disturb the rhythm of the heart, this alkaloid is currently used as an anti-addiction selleck compound drug in alternative medicine. Here, we report that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine reduce currents through human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels. Thereby, we provide a mechanism by which ibogaine may generate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.”
“Recent developments in medical imaging and advanced computer modeling simulations) now enable studies designed to correlate either simulated or measured “”patient-specific”" parameters with the natural history of intracranial aneurysm i.e., ruptured or unruptured. To achieve significance, however,

these studies require rigorous comparison of large amounts of data from large numbers of aneurysms, DZNeP cost many of which are quite dissimilar anatomically. In this study, we present a method that can likely facilitate such studies as its application could potentially simplify an objective comparison of surface-based parameters of interest such as wall shear stress and blood pressure using large multi-patient, multi-institutional data sets.

Based on the concept of harmonic function/field, we present a unified and simple approach for mapping the surface of an aneurysm onto a unit disc. Requiring minimal human

interactions the algorithm first decomposes the vessel geometry into 1) target aneurysm and 2) parent artery and any adjacent branches; it, then, maps the segmented aneurysm surface onto a unit disk. In particular, the decomposition of the vessel geometry quantitatively exploits the unique combination of three sets of information regarding the shape of the relevant vasculature: JQ-EZ-05 nmr 1) a distance metric defining the spatially varying deviation from a tubular characteristic (i.e., cylindrical structure) of a normal parent artery, 2) local curvatures and 3) local concavities at the junction/interface between an aneurysm and its parent artery. These three sets of resultant shape/geometrical data are then combined to construct a linear system of the Laplacian equation with a novel shape-sensitive weighting scheme. The solution to such a linear system is a shape-sensitive harmonic function/field whose iso-lines will densely gather at the border between the normal parent artery and the aneurysm.

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A partial response to treatment was achieved at the time of writi

A partial response to treatment was achieved at the time of writing this report.”
“In our earlier study, we had reported the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who had anti-Jo-1 antibodies. This patient had received etanercept (ETN) therapy for RA, after which she had developed overt polymyositis (PM). Although Proteasome inhibitor various autoimmune phenomena, including lupus-like diseases, vasculitides, or psoriatic skin lesions, are associated with antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy, the development of PM/dermatomyositis (DM) or antisynthetase syndrome following anti-TNF therapy is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of an RA patient

with anti-PL-12 antibodies, who received ETN therapy and subsequently developed the antisynthetase syndrome. She recovered when ETN therapy was withdrawn and high-dose corticosteroid was administered. To date, there have been only five reported Sapitinib cost cases of RA patients with anti-Jo-1 antibodies who developed overt PM/DM following anti-TNF therapy and only one case of antisynthetase syndrome in an RA patient

with anti-PL-7 antibodies. Our patients and the abovementioned reports strongly suggest that onset of overt PM/DM or antisynthetase syndrome in RA patients with anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies is associated with anti-TNF therapy.”
“We demonstrate that slow light with large group-index, wideband, and low dispersion can be realized in a silicon-on-insulator W1-type photonic crystal waveguide by simply shifting the first two rows of air-holes adjacent to the waveguide to specific directions. Keeping the group index at 46, 60, 86, 111, 151, and 233, respectively, while restricting its variation within a +/- 10% range,

we accordingly obtain a slow light bandwidth of 9.0 nm, 6.7 nm, 4.6 nm, 3.3 nm, 2.4 nm, and 1.7 nm, respectively. The normalized delay-bandwidth product keeps around 0.25 for all cases. Moreover, we obtain ultraflat slow light with bandwidths over 3.0 nm, 2.4 nm, 1.6 nm, 1.3 nm, 0.93 nm, and 0.6 nm, respectively, where the group index variation is in a range of only +/- 0.8%. Numerical simulations are performed, utilizing the 2D plane wave expansion method and the finite-difference time-domain method. check details (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3634074]“
“This study was conducted to determine the differences in the inter-observer agreement of the simplified Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system from center to center in a large international multicenter study.

This is a secondary analysis of the results of a large prospective single blind multicenter trial studying the inter-observer agreement of a simplified POP-Q exam. Twelve centers from four continents with a total of 511 subjects were included in this study. The number of subjects recruited per center ranged from 20 to 81.

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The paper introduces

the problem of the primary headache

The paper introduces

the problem of the primary headache diagnosis and presents its current taxonomy. The considered problem is simplified into the three class classification task which is solved using advanced machine learning techniques. Experiments, carried out on the large dataset collected by authors, confirmed that computer decision support systems can achieve high recognition accuracy and therefore be a useful tool in an everyday physician practice. This is the starting point for the future research on automation of the primary headache diagnosis.”
“Background: Rapid access to medical services which is an important predictor of treatment and rehabilitation outcome requires that there is an understanding of stroke risk factors and early warning signs. This study assessed awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs among students and staff of AZD2014 nmr Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey involving 994 (500 students and 494 staff) respondents. Information on the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs was collected

with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Weakness (66.2%) was the most commonly identified warning sign of stroke with more staff (69.8%) identifying correctly than students (62.6%). Hypertension (83.4%) was the most commonly identified stroke risk factor, with more Copanlisib datasheet staff (91.7%) identifying correctly than students (83.2%). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the awareness of some

risk factors (age, hypertension, stress and obesity), and warning signs (dizziness, numbness, weakness, headache and vision problems) between students and staff. Predictors for adequate awareness of both stroke risk factors and warning signs were younger age, smoking history and higher educational level. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents recognized individual important stroke risk factors and warning signs, but few recognized multiple stroke risk factors and warning signs. Awareness programs on stroke should be organized, even in communities with educated AZD7762 order people to increase public awareness on the prevention of stroke and on the reduction of morbidity in the survivors.”
“Purpose of reviewAlthough many reviews have focused on diet as a determinant of coronary heart disease (CHD), little is known about the use of specific nutrients or food products. The aim of this review was to examine the role of several functional foods, or nutraceuticals, in the prevention or treatment of CHD.Recent findingsCHD continues to be one of the main causes of death in modern societies. Far from diminishing, its prevalence and incidence continue to grow and are probably linked to the increase in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Numerous preventive measures and treatments are being considered for these metabolic diseases.

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4:1 0 There was a significant association between education and

4:1.0. There was a significant association between education and patients’ adherence to their medications. Side effects of the anti-tuberculosis agents have negative impact on patients’ drug adherence. Positive effect of counseling on the patients’ adherence to their medication regimen was also recorded. Age had no significant relationship with patients’ drug adherence, whereas education was significantly associated with patients’ drug adherence. Drug adherence rate accounted for 94.6% of the patients seen over the period of study. The high rate of drug adherence observed was probably due to free anti-tuberculosis

drugs, free medical laboratory service and the rapid improvement in the signs and symptoms of the disease. Also, directly observed treatment short course (DOTs) currently introduced in the hospital coupled with free supply of tuberculosis resistant strain drugs to ACY-241 mw patients, improved adherence and impede tuberculosis transmission within the community, and thereby stem the tide of the disease.”
“The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of denosumab (Amgen Inc., UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of denosumab for the prevention of fragility

fractures in post-menopausal women, as part of the Institute’s single technology appraisal (STA) process. The University of Aberdeen Health Technology Assessment Group were commissioned to act 17DMAG as the Evidence Src inhibitor Review Group (ERG); the role of the ERG being to appraise the manufacturer’s submission and to produce an independent report. This article provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and NICE’s

subsequent decisions.

The manufacturer considered that denosumab would be appropriate for patients unable to take, comply with or tolerate oral bisphosphonates.

Comparator treatments selected for the submission were, therefore, ‘no treatment’, raloxifene, strontium ranelate, intravenous zoledronic acid, intravenous ibandronate and teriparatide. The main effectiveness evidence for denosumab was derived from a large randomized controlled trial comparing denosumab with placebo. Given by subcutaneous injection at 6-monthly intervals for 3 years, denosumab reduced the incidence of hip fracture by 40%, and reduced the incidence of clinical vertebral fracture by 69%. An indirect treatment comparison was used to derive adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates for different types of fracture for each comparator versus placebo. The RRs (95% CI) applied for denosumab were 0.316 (0.208, 0.478) for clinical vertebral fracture, 0.605 (0.373, 0.983) for hip fracture and 0.842 (0.638, 1.110) for wrist fracture. Despite a number of concerns surrounding the methodology of the indirect comparison, the ERG was satisfied with the robustness of the effect estimates.

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