In addition, FPP-3 administration dramatically increased the hepatotoxicity parameters in serum at 500 mg/kg, in association of hepatic necrosis. FPP-3 significantly induced several phase I enzyme activities. To elucidate the possible mechanism(s) involved in FPP-3 induced hepatotoxicity, we investigated the hepatic activities of free radical generating and scavenging enzymes and the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation. FPP-3 treatment significantly elevated the hepatic lipid peroxidation,
measured as the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and the activity of superoxide dismutase. Taken together, the present data VX-809 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor indicated that reactive oxygen species might be involved in FPP-3-induced hepatotoxicity.”
“Background: Malassezia (M.) species are members of the normal part of the skin flora, but they might induce or be involved with various cutaneous diseases. Although Ubiquitin inhibitor the role of Malassezia in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases is not fully understood, recent studies have shown that decreased density of Malassezia led to improvement of these diseases.
Objective: To identify the antifungal effect of light emitting diode (LED) against Malassezia, its antifungal mechanisms and the impact on the keratinocytes.
Methods: LED with various wavelengths (370-630 nm) on Malassezia furfur, Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia
globosa was irradiated according to dose and then the antifungal effects were thereafter assessed. After irradiating LED with 392.5 +/- 1 nm of wavelength according to dose on Malassezia species, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid hydroperoxide production assay were measured. In addition, cell viability and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha., IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, TLR-2 and COX-2) expressions in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) by LED irradiation were evaluated.
Results: The growth of
Malassezia Cl-amidine in vitro species was dose-dependently suppressed by both LED with 380 +/- 2 and 392.5 +/- 1 nm wavelengths. The increases of intracellular and extracellular ROS by LED irradiation with 392.5 +/- 1 nm wavelengths were significantly observed compared to control group. The cell viability and cytokines in NHEKs were not significantly affected by LED irradiation under 5 J/cm(2) in vitro.
Conclusion: LED irradiation with 380 +/- 2 and 392.5 +/- 1 nm wavelengths proved to have antifungal effect against Malassezia species and no impact on NHEKs under 5 J/cm(2). The findings suggest that LED might be an adjunctive therapeutic light tool against Malassezia yeasts related cutaneous diseases. (C) 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass.