cholerae and V mimicus genomes, supporting the conclusion that b

cholerae and V. mimicus genomes, supporting the conclusion that both represent unique species not described before. Moreover, genes conserved among V. cholerae, V. mimicus, and the two new species varied sufficiently to suggest ancient speciation via genetic drift of the ancestral core genomic backbone. Furthermore, results of our analyses suggest Vibrio sp. RC341 to have evolved from

a progenitor of V. cholerae and V. mimicus, whereas Vibrio sp. RC586 is concluded to have evolved from an early V. mimicus clade. Although the ANI of all genomes analyzed in this study demonstrates divergence, putative genomic islands were found to cross species boundaries, often at an higher ANI than the conserved backbone. These data, coupled with phylogenetic analyses, point to lateral transfer of the islands and phages among V. cholerae, V. mimicus, Vibrio sp. RC341, and Vibrio sp. RC586 in the

natural environment. Furthermore, homologous GI insertion loci were present in both new species and in the case of V. cholerae, these insertion loci were not GI-specific. The pool of DNA laterally transferred between and among members of the Vibrionaceae strongly suggests Batimastat manufacturer that near-neighbors of V. cholerae act as reservoirs of transferable genetic elements and virulence in the environment and that V. cholerae is not alone in propagating these elements therein. Results of this study also demonstrate a widespread allelic variation in these elements and evidence of evolution of mobile genetic elements, including pathogenicity islands, through a multistep mosaic recombination with other elements, including phage. The ability of vibrios to incorporate exogenous DNA at several loci that encode a large combination of GIs, thereby, allows optimization of the genome

for success in a specific niche or wider ecology in the natural environment. Methods Genome sequencing Draft sequences were obtained from a blend of Sanger and 454 sequences and involved paired end Sanger sequencing on 8 kb plasmid libraries to 5× coverage, 20× coverage of Astemizole 454 data, and optional paired end Sanger sequencing on 35 kb fosmid libraries to 1-2× coverage (depending on repeat complexity). To finish the genomes, a collection of custom software and targeted reaction types were used. In addition to targeted sequencing strategies, Solexa data in an untargeted strategy were used to improve low quality regions and to assist gap closure. Repeat resolution was performed using in house custom software [37]. Targeted finishing reactions included transposon bombs [38], primer walks on clones, primer walks on PCR products, and adapter PCR reactions. Gene-finding and annotation were achieved using an automated annotation server [39]. The genomes of these organisms have been deposited in the NCBI Genbank database (accession nos. NZ_ACZT00000000 and NZ_ADBD00000000).

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Further, two morphologically and optically highly similar strains

Further, two morphologically and optically highly similar strains of the filamentous Selleckchem AZD9291 bloom-forming Nodularia spumigena were included: strain HEM from University of Helsinki, Microbiology division (Sivonen et

al. 1989), and one with an undocumented culturing history that we conservatively annotate Nodularia sp. from the TV collection. All species are common in the Baltic Sea. Nutrient replete cultures were grown on sterile modified BG-11 media with salinity adjusted to the Baltic Sea at 8.3 g NaCl L−1, pH = 7.4, and added vitamin B12 (0.02 μg L−1). Silicate was added to the diatom cultures at 0.044 g Na2SiO3·5H2O L−1. BG11 medium is rich in nitrate (N:P approximately 100:1), so cultures that were left to grow and age in a particular batch were expected to eventually become starved of phosphorous. To induce nitrogen starvation instead, selected cultures were periodically refreshed with medium with reduced (10%) nitrate (N treatment) or no nitrate (-N treatment). These treatments were expected to induce fixation of elemental nitrogen in the Nodularia strains. Light conditions were 12/12 h light/dark from fluorescent tubes NCT-501 solubility dmso at low/medium/high light treatments of 20, 70 or

350 μmol photons m−2 s−1, respectively, using green filters to mimic the Baltic Sea environment in the low and medium light levels. The green filters also increased production of phycobilipigments, particularly in the Synechococcus strains. The cultures were kept in suspension by daily gentle

mixing, and bubbling with filtered air for 15 min every hour. The complete combination of treatments and sampling times (i.e. aging of the cultures) is presented in Table 1. Cultures that exhibited no growth after up to 2 weeks were removed from the experiment. Cultures that underwent significant visual changes were sampled more than once. The different treatments resulted Clomifene in a total of 31 sampling events of cyanobacterial cultures and 15 sampling events of the algal cultures. Table 1 Culturing conditions Cultured species Culturing conditions (light, nutrients) 20, +N 70, +N 70, N 350, N 350, −N Synechococcus sp. CCY9201a 5, 8 7, 8   8 2 Synechococcus sp. CCY9202a 12, 14, 19 5, 8, 11,12   8   Nodularia spumigena HEMb 14, 17 7, 14, 17 12, 21 11, 14, 16   Nodularia sp.c   7, 13, 17 12, 21 11, 23   Brachiomonas submarina TV15c   7, 17, 11, 34   8 2, 7 Thalassiosira pseudonana TV5c   12, 13, 14, 17, 24, 34   7 2 The numbers under each growth regime indicate the time (days) that the respective culture was left to grow/age after inoculation, before sampling took place. Growth light intensities (values in column headers) have units μmol photons m−2 s−1. Nitrogen additions are indicated with +N, N, −N for nitrogen replete, nitrogen limited and nitrogen deplete conditions aErnst et al. (2003) bSivonen et al.

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2006) The regularly updated list (last update in September 2008)

2006). The regularly updated list (last update in September 2008) included woody species reported in inventories and obtained from herbarium data, taxonomic monographs and revisions. We only included species that reach at least 3 m during some time in their life cycle. We also defined an altitudinal limit of 1,100 m.a.s.l. for our study area in order to exclude dry Andean and Puna vegetation from higher altitudes, which gradually intermingles with SDF vegetation at this altitude, especially in the dry inter-Andean valleys. Geographical and altitudinal distribution

was assessed and complemented with Jørgensen and León-Yánez (1999) and Bracko and Zarucchi (1993), including the latest additions for both countries (Ecuador: 2000–2004, Ulloa Ulloa and Neill 2005; Peru: 1993–2003, Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004). We define endemism at two levels: first, we identify endemic species restricted check details CAL-101 to either Ecuador or Peru; second, we identify, and consequently consider as endemic, those species restricted to the Equatorial Pacific region. We were not able to find accurate altitudinal distribution

data for 29 Ecuadorean species (including four endemics) and for two Peruvian species. We excluded them from the quantitative analyses requiring altitude data. Endemism and conservation assessment were checked with Valencia et al. (2000) for Ecuador, León et al. (2006) for Peru, and the online IUCN Red List database (IUCN 2006). Lozano (2002) in

southern Ecuador and Weberbauer (1945) in northern Peru classified the vegetation into different altitudinal bands, each having a distinctive floristic composition. Following their schemes, we performed an analysis of the elevational distribution of the woody SDF species by assigning them to four broad elevational categories: 0–200 m, 200–500 m, 500–1,000 m, 1,000–1,100 m. Even though we restricted our study to areas below 1,100 m.a.s.l., Cediranib (AZD2171) several species, which are characteristic for SDFs below this altitude, easily reach higher elevations, as for example in the Peruvian inter-Andean valleys (e.g., Weberbauer 1945). We calculated the area of each altitudinal band in a GIS using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM data, with a resolution of 90 m (Jarvis et al. 2008), projected onto a planar coordinate system (UTM 17S, Datum WGS84). To estimate the total area of SDF in each political unit, we also calculated the total departmental or provincial area in the range 0–1,100 m.a.s.l. We worked with two values, first, the absolute number of species in each altitudinal band; second, the density of species per 1,000 km2. The latter value, allowed us to assess if there were differences in absolute species richness or endemism per unit area.

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Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples were prepared by m

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples were prepared by mechanically rubbing the electrodes onto copper grids overlayed with ultra-thin amorphous carbon. Both PF 2341066 bright-field images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectra were obtained in the TEM. For comparison purposes, additional

nanowire electrodes were prepared, but no current was passed across them. Rather, one electrode was left in air and its sheet resistance was monitored over the period of 1 year. Other electrodes were annealed in an atmospheric furnace each at various temperatures and times. These electrodes were imaged in the SEM at various stages to see how the electrode morphology evolved throughout the annealing process. Results and discussion Electrode failure measurements An SEM image of a prepared nanowire electrode is shown in Figure 1a.

The transparency of all electrodes was nearly constant across all visible wavelengths, as similarly found by other groups [3, 10, 11]. The electrodes prepared for the stability experiments had sheet resistances ranging from 12 Ω/sq (with a corresponding transparency of 91% at a wavelength of 550 nm) to 37 Ω/sq (with a transparency of 94% at 550 nm). Figure 1b shows the evolution of the voltage and surface temperature of a 12 Ω/sq nanowire VRT752271 electrode as 17 mA/cm2 of current was passed across it. As was typical with all samples measured, the voltage (and therefore resistance) gradually increased with time, Immune system and then suddenly jumped to 30 V once the electrode failed. The power dissipated in the electrode is P = IV,

so with a constant current and a gradually increasing voltage, the surface temperature gradually increased over time as well until electrode failure. Figure 1 Silver nanowire electrode and its long-term characteristics. (a) SEM image of an as-prepared electrode. (b) Voltage and surface temperature of a 12 Ω/sq sample when a constant current density of 17 mA/cm2 was applied across the electrode. Figure 2a shows that under a constant current density, electrodes with a higher sheet resistance fail more quickly. Higher sheet resistance electrodes have sparser nanowire networks, and thus the current density in the individual nanowires is higher than in lower resistance electrodes. Joule heating is also higher in more resistive films, since P = IV = I 2 R. The surface temperatures immediately preceding the electrode failure of the four samples measured for Figure 2a, from the lowest to highest sheet resistance, were 55°C, 70°C, 100°C, and 102°C, respectively. Figure 2 Dependency of failure time on resistance and current density. (a) The number of days to failure versus sheet resistance, when conducting 17 mA/cm2 across samples with different resistances. (b) The relationship between the number of days to failure and current density, as measured with three different 30 Ω/sq electrodes.

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Contaminating endotoxins were removed from the HmuY sample using

Contaminating endotoxins were removed from the HmuY sample using Detoxi-Gel Endotoxin Removing Columns (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA). HmuY was prepared at a final concentration of 2.5 μg/mL. Twenty milliliters

of Selleck Linsitinib peripheral venous blood were drawn from each individual and collected in heparin tubes. Mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from peripheral blood samples and purified by density centrifugation in accordance with manufacturer guidelines (SepCell, StemCell Technologies Inc., USA). All cells were washed twice in RPMI (Roswell Park Memorial Institute) medium (LGCBio, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) and PBMCs were cultured in flat-bottom 24-well plates (106 cells/well) in RPMI medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (complement proteins inactivated by heat) and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic solution (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). All cultures XMU-MP-1 were grown for 48 h at 37°C under 5% CO2 in humid conditions. Cells were also incubated

with 5 μg/mL of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as a positive control, 0.5 μg/mL of P. gingivalis extract (ATCC 33277), 2.5 μg/mL of HmuY, or in the absence of antigens (Cells). All PBMCs were collected by centrifugation and resuspended in 500 μL of 1×binding buffer, then incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies in accordance with manufacturer instructions (Life Science, Carlsbad, CA, USA). To identify the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the Fas death receptor, mouse anti-human Bcl-2 (IgG1 kappa) conjugated with PE CY, mouse anti-human CD95 (IgG1) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate

(FITC), mouse anti-human CD3 conjugated with PerCP CY (IgG2a), or isotype-matched controls antibodies were used. The triple expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 was identified by flow cytometry using the FITC, PE CY and PerCP CY signal detectors and BD FACSCalibur equipment (BD Facscalibur, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Clinical variables were described in terms of means±standard deviations (mean±SD). Student’s t-test was used to compare clinical features among groups. The Mann–Whitney test was used to assess differences among groups with respect to immunological data in the absence of normal distribution. Statistical significance was considered when p < 0.05. SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science, USA) software was used to perform all statistical nearly analyses. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grant no. 20100291 from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel in Brazil (awarded to Paulo Cirino de Carvalho Filho), and no. N303 518438 from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland (Tereza Olzack). The authors would like to thank the Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biology at the Health Sciences Institute of the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) and the Research Support Foundation of the State of Bahia for providing assistance with student fellowships. The authors would also like to thank Andris K.

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In the absence of strong regulatory mechanisms, and given large m

In the absence of strong regulatory mechanisms, and given large monetary gains, these demands will be fulfilled, putting a

strain on wildlife populations. While levels of wildlife trade are rarely quantified and specified, it is clear that for many species groups from different areas huge volumes are traded annually (Li and Li 1998; van Dijk et al. 2000; Auliya 2003; Zhou and Jiang 2004, Schlaepfer et al. 2005; Engler and Parry-Jones 2007). Probably the species groups and individual taxa for which we have the most detailed data are the ones that are of conservation concern, but some arguable much better than others. Not only have these taxa received the attention from both government and non-government organizations monitoring JQEZ5 cost the extraction from the wild, trade in a significant number of them are regulated (and systematically recorded) through the Convention on International selleck Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), allowing retrospective assessments of realised levels of trade. While by their very nature rare animals and plants tend to be traded in smaller absolute numbers, especially when levels of trade are capped, from a conservation perspective it may be more meaningful to restrict the analysis of levels of

wildlife trade to conservation-dependent species or species groups. Presented here is an analysis of trade in a wide range of CITES-listed Janus kinase (JAK) animal groups (from butterflies and corals to reptiles and birds) with the ultimate aim of assessing the levels of extraction from the wild needed to supply the international demand in wildlife. An assessment is made of temporal changes in volumes, the mayor (official) exporters and importers for the different taxa are identified, and data on volumes bred under captive or controlled conditions is consolidated. It shows that for essentially for all taxa but butterflies

the majority of individuals in trade are derived from the wild and that apart from birds exports have either remained stable or have increased during the time period under investigation. Comparing these official data with scant data from illegal exports suggests that true levels of export are higher than reported, and that for selected taxa this will exceed sustainable levels of exploitation. Methods Study region Southeast Asia is here defined on a country-by-country basis, and includes Indonesia (including East Timor prior to gaining independence in 2002), Brunei, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam and China (excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region [SAR], Macau SAR, or Taiwan, Province of China [PoC]). Both Indonesia and China extend extensively beyond what is normally included in Southeast Asia.

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However, the key points have not been well elucidated, and the in

However, the key points have not been well elucidated, and the investigation of mechanisms for multiple HCC may improve the prognosis of this severe disease. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of nerve growth factor family, playing an important role in supporting survival and growth of neurons. Epigenetics inhibitor Tropomysin-related kinase B (TrkB) is the primary receptor of BDNF, which functions as a tyrosine kinase. BDNF and TrkB are up-regulated in a variety of primary human tumors,

including neuroblastoma [5], breast [6], bladder [7] and ovarian [8] cancers. In gastric cancer, a high level of TrkB expression was predicted for distant metastases and poor prognosis [9]. TrkB overexpression was also found in highly metastatic pancreatic cancer cells, which was presumed to mediate the clinical features of aggressive growth and metastasis of pancreatic Fosbretabulin cost cancer [10]. When activated by BDNF, TrkB induces the activation of downstream signaling molecules, such as

Akt [11, 12] and ERK [13, 14], which elicits the differential regulation of various cellular activities, like cell proliferation [15], differentiation [16], apoptosis [17], and invasion [18]. TrkB signaling promotes cell survival in an anchorage-independent manner [19]. In HCC, the expressions of BDNF and TrkB were found up-regulated in detached HCC BEL7402 cell aggregations, which were able to resistant to detachment-induced apoptosis [20]. Despite the increasing evidence of BDNF and TrkB on tumor progression, whether they are involved

in multiple HCC has not yet been determined. In the present study, the expressions of BDNF and TrkB in HCC specimens were examined, and by neutralizing BDNF or inhibiting Bacterial neuraminidase TrkB kinase activity in HCC cell lines to observe the effects of BDNF/TrkB interruption on cell apoptosis and invasion. Methods HCC samples A total of 65 HCC patients who had therapeutic resection from January 2006 to January 2011 were enrolled in this study. This study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of China Medical University and the informed consent was obtained from all patients. All of the enrolled patients underwent curative surgical resection without having chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of tumor were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and reviewed by two senior pathologists in order to determine the histological characteristics and tumor stage according to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system (2003, Edit 6). Clinicopathological information including tumor distribution (solitary or multiple nodules), differentiation, stage and lymph node metastasis was obtained from patient records, and listed in additional file 1. Immunohistochemistry 65 paraffin sections of HCC were deparaffinized and rehydrated routinely.

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The general morphology and the crystallinity of the samples were

The general morphology and the crystallinity of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM; Quantum F400, FEI Company, Hillsboro, USA) and

X-ray diffraction (XRD; Rigaku SMARTLAB XRD, Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Their detailed microstructure and chemical composition were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM; Tecnai 20 FEG, FEI Company) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer attached to the same microscope. Optical absorption was measured using a Hitachi U3501 spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). Photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out in a three-electrode electrochemical cell using an electrochemical workstation (CHI660C, Shanghai Chenhua Instruments Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China) with 0.35 selleckchem M Na2SO3 and 0.24 M Na2S solution as the hole scavenger click here electrolyte, CdSe nanotube arrays on ITO as the working electrode,

Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode, and Pt foil as the counter electrode. The illumination source was the visible light irradiation (100 mW/cm2) from a 150-W xenon lamp (Bentham IL7, Berkshire, UK) equipped with a 400-nm longpass filter. Photocatalytic activities of the nanotube arrays were evaluated from the degradation of 0.5 ppm MB aqueous solution (5 ml) with and without adding 10 vol.% ethanol. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the absorbance of the MB solution at 664 nm using Hitachi U3501 spectrophotometer every 0.5 h. Results and discussion Morphology, crystal structure, and chemical composition Figure 1a,b shows top-view and side-view SEM images of typical CdSe nanotube arrays. The inner diameters, wall thicknesses, and lengths of the science nanotubes are estimated as approximately 70 nm, approximately 50 nm, and approximately 2.5 μm, respectively. The inner diameters and the lengths of the nanotubes are inherited from the original ZnO nanorod template,

the size of which is tunable. The wall thickness of the CdSe nanotube can be varied by adjusting the electrochemical deposition time. Detailed discussion on the nanotube morphology control can be found in previous works [23]. XRD pattern taken from the annealed nanotube array sample is shown in Figure 1c, in which the diffraction peaks from the ITO substrate are marked with asterisks. All remaining peaks can be assigned to the cubic zinc blende (ZB) structure of CdSe (JCPDS no. 88-2346). ZnO diffraction has not been detected, suggesting that most of the ZnO cores have been removed by the ammonia etching. The full width at half maximum of the CdSe diffraction peaks is rather large, suggesting the small grain size in the sample. The crystalline size is estimated to be around 5 nm by Scherrer’s equation [32, 33]. Distinct tubular structure can also be seen in the TEM image (Figure 1d) taken from the same sample, and the polycrystalline nature of the nanotube is suggested by the patch-like contrast along the tube wall.

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Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 45:3–7 Zabel J, Tscharnke T (1998

Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 45:3–7 Zabel J, Tscharnke T (1998) Does fragmentation of Urtica habitats affect phytophagous and predatory insects differently? Oecologia 116:419–425CrossRef Zimmerman EC (1970) Adaptive radiation in Hawaii with special reference to insects. Biotropica 2:32–38CrossRef”

A significant part of the pet trade deals with tropical species, from tropical to temperate countries and increasingly to meet domestic demand in tropical countries (Duarte-Quiroga and Estrada 2003; Shepherd et al. 2004; Nijman 2005). Furthermore, as apparently there are many affluent buyers in developing countries, there is a market for exotic pets (i.e. those species not indigenous to the country itself) within the developing world (Nijman and Shepherd selleck inhibitor PF-562271 manufacturer 2007): given that wildlife protection laws are not always strictly enforced in certain countries this included species that are not permitted to be traded or species for which trade is strictly regulated (Nijman 2006, 2010; Shepherd et al. 2004). In this

paper we focus on the international trade in poison arrow frogs for the pet market, with a focus on the Asian consumer countries. Poison arrow frogs (Dendrobatidae) are a highly species family of frogs occurring in Central and South America (Clough and Summers 2000; Vences et al. 2000; Bartlett 2003; Symula et al. 2003). Like other tropical frogs they are affected by habitat TCL loss and chytridiomycosis (an infectious disease caused by a zoosporic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis leading to sometimes high mortalities in amphibians: Daszak et al. 2003), but unsustainable capture for the pet trade may pose an additional threat (Schlaepfer et al. 2005; Gorzula 1996; Preece 1998). At least 30–40 species are encountered regularly in the international pet trade. Recognising the need for regulating

trade in dendrobatid frogs, on 22 October 1987 they were listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), regulating all commercial trade in these species (Gorzula 1996; Mrosovsky 1988; Pickett 1987). By then all range countries of dendrobatid frogs—that is countries in which the species occur naturally—were a Party to CITES. This paper provides an analysis of data available on the international trade in dendrobatid frogs and point at a curious trade route, with captive-bred specimens being exported by one CITES Party (Kazakhstan) to a non-CITES Party (Lebanon), after which they are then re-exported to another CITES Party (Thailand) only to be re-exported further into Asia. Methods Data were obtained from the WCMC-CITES database (http://​www.​unep-wcmc.​org/​citestrade). This database reports all records of import, export and re-export of CITES-listed species as reported by Parties.

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Invasive cells on the lower surface of the membrane, which had in

Invasive cells on the lower surface of the membrane, which had invaded the ECMatrix and had

migrated through the polycarbonate membrane, were stained with the staining solution for 20 minutes and rinsed with distilled water several times. Invasiveness was quantitated by selecting 10 different views (400 times) and counting BI-D1870 the number of invasion cells. Statistical analysis All assays were conducted 3 times and found to be reproducible. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical correlation of data between groups was checked for significance by Student’s t test. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered significant. These analyses were performed using SPSS 11.0 software. Results Effects of AG490 and IL-6 on growth in pancreatic cancer cells Because Stat3 activation was positively associated with proliferation potential in cancer cells, we measured the absorbance of the SW1990 cell line in the presence of AG490. Incubation with 20 μM/L AG490 for 72 hours markedly reduced proliferation of SW1990 cells (P < 0.05), but incubation with 20 μM/L AG490 for 24 and 48 hours did not reduce proliferation of SW1990 cells (P > 0.05). We measured

the absorbance of the Capan-2 cell line in the presence of IL-6, a cytokine that can active the Jak/Stat3 signaling Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor pathway. Incubation with 100 ng/ml IL-6 for 48 and 72 hours increased proliferation of Capan-2 cells significantly (P < 0.05) , but incubation with 100 ng/ml IL-6 for for 24 hours did not increase proliferation of SW1990 cells (P > 0.05). Because of these results, cell invasion assay was performed with doses of 20 μM/L AG490 for 24 hours and 100 ng/ml IL-6 for for 24 hours to ignore the influence of cell viability. The growth curve was obtained according to the absorbance of the cells. (Figure 1) Figure 1 Pancreatic cancer cell growth was detected

by MTT assay. SW1990 and Capan-2 cells growing in 96-well plates were treated with AG490 and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Incubation with 20 μM/L AG490 for 72 hours markedly reduced proliferation of SW1990 cells (P = 0.000), but incubation with 20 μM/L AG490 for 24, Resveratrol 48 hours did not reduce proliferation of SW1990 cells (P = 0.051, P = 0.060). Incubation with 100 ng/ml IL-6 for 48 and 72 hours increased proliferation of Capan-2 cells significantly (P = 0.001, P = 0.000) , but incubation with 100 ng/ml IL-6 for for 24 hours did not increase proliferation of SW1990 cells (P = 0.073). Data are mean ± SD of 8 wells. A = Absorbance. Effects of AG490 and IL-6 on VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA expression in pancreatic cancer cells The mRNA levels of the VEGF and MMP-2 genes in SW1990 and Capan-2 cells were examined by RT-PCR. RNA samples were extracted from SW1990 cells treated for 24 hours with 20 μM AG490 and then subjected to RT-PCR for MMP-2, VEGF and β-actin. AG490 significantly decreased the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF mRNAs in SW1990 cells.

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