The patient was discharged free of symptoms two weeks prior to pr

The patient was discharged free of symptoms two weeks prior to presentation in our department. Following admission to our emergency room, an immediate CT-scan and a blood test were performed, as the patient showed signs of an initiating peritonitis. The CT scan showed an isolated re-dissection in the proximal part of the SMA with

embolization of a distal branch causing an almost complete decline of right hand side intestinal Wnt inhibitors clinical trials perfusion. Aggravating, the right hepatic artery originated from the proximal part of the SMA as an anatomical variant. The origin was located directly in the region of the dissection entry. Figure 1 shows the major findings of the CT scan on admission. As endovascular therapy had a high risk of post interventional liver failure, the decision for open surgery was taken at an interdisciplinary level. Blood test AP24534 results showed a normal serum lactate level, while C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes (WBC) were raised. Thus, the patient had to be transferred urgently to the operating theatre. We resected the dissection membrane from the origin of the SMA and a selective embolectomy of the arcade arteries was performed. The SMA was

re-constructed using a venous interponate. Thus, for the interposition the saphenous vein from the right upper leg was used. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with an abdomen apertum. As hypercoagulability occurred during the operation and we suspected a heparin induced

thrombopenia (HIT), anticoagulation was managed using Argatroban with an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 50-70 seconds. This suspicion was later confirmed due to a Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Platelet Factor 4 Antibody Test. Figure 1 demonstrates the representative findings of a CT-scan control five days after the operation. As a further course, negative wound pressure therapy was performed with wound dressing changes at intervals of two days and conducted within in the operating theatre (four times). In this context, the small intestinum was carefully inspected. We could not find any signs of hypoperfusion lesions. As the patient described persistent abdominal pain, performing a colonoscopy six Acetophenone days after the operation meant that ischemic colitis could be ruled out. Figure 1 Representative CT scan findings. A: shown is the entry of the dissection at the proximal SMA. An abnormal origin of the right hepatic artery from the proximal SMA can be seen as an anatomical variant. B: An embolism of a distal branch of the SMA is shown. C: Reconstruction of the CT scan after admission. Almost complete decline of intestinal perfusion of the right abdominal side could be observed. D: findings of the control CT scan 5 days after operation. No residual membrane could be observed, normal perfusion of the SMA and the right hepatic artery.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

2010;56:196–202 PubMedCrossRef 39 Zhang Y, Zhang X, Liu L, Zanch

2010;56:196–202.PubMedCrossRef 39. Zhang Y, Zhang X, Liu L, Zanchetti A. Is a systolic blood pressure target <140 mmHg indicated in all hypertensives? Subgroup analyses of findings from the randomized FEVER trial. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1500–8.PubMedCrossRef 40. Verdecchia P, Staessen

JA, Angeli F, de SG, Achilli A, Ganau A, et al. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2009;374:525–3. 41. Zanchetti A. Bottom blood pressure or bottom cardiovascular risk? How far can cardiovascular risk be reduced? J Hypertens. Belnacasan 2009;27:1509–20.PubMedCrossRef 42. Bryce A, Coca A. Treatment of hypertension: monotherapy or combination therapy. Rev Argent Cardiol. 2011;79:355–63. 43. Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK, Bestwick JP, Wald NJ. Combination selleck therapy versus monotherapy in reducing blood pressure: meta-analysis

on 11,000 participants from 42 trials. Am J Med. 2009;122:290–300.PubMedCrossRef 44. Kjeldsen SE, Messerli FH, Chiang CE, Meredith PA, Liu L. Are fixed-dose combination antihypertensives suitable as first-line therapy? Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28:1685–97.PubMedCrossRef 45. Flack JM, Sica DA, Bakris G, Brown AL, Ferdinand KC, Grimm RH Jr, et al. Management of high blood pressure in Blacks: an update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement. Hypertension. 2010;56:780–800.PubMedCrossRef 46. Webb AJ, Fischer U, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:906–15.PubMedCrossRef 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl 47. Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, et al. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet. 2004;363:2022–31.PubMedCrossRef

48. Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL, Dahlof B, Pitt B, Shi V, et al. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2417–28.PubMedCrossRef 49. AlGhurair SA, Hughes CA, Simpson SH, Guirguis LM. A systematic review of patient self-reported barriers of adherence to antihypertensive medications using the World Health Organization multidimensional adherence model. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:877–86.CrossRef 50. Kuschnir E, Bendersky M, Resk J, Panart MS, Guzman L, Plotquin Y, et al. Effects of the combination of low-dose nifedipine GITS 20 mg and losartan 50 mg in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;43:300–5.PubMedCrossRef 51. Taddei S, Omboni S, Ghiadoni L, Caiazza A, Fogari R, Innocenti P, et al. Combination of lisinopril and nifedipine GITS increases blood pressure control compared with single drugs in essential hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2003;41:579–85.PubMedCrossRef 52.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Previous studies have shown that NAC could decrease biofilm forma

Previous studies have shown that NAC could decrease biofilm formation by a variety of bacteria [4–6] and that it inhibited bacterial adherence, reduced the production of extracellular polysaccharide matrix, while promoting the disruption of mature biofilms, and reduced sessile cell viability [4, 7]. Olofsson [7] studied the biofilms of 10 bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill. These results showed that EPS production decreased significantly in the presence of NAC (0.25 mg/ml). Although the growth didn’t affected the most of tested bacteria, the average reduction in the LEE011 molecular weight amount of EPS produced was 58% ± 20%; the presence of NAC reduced

the number of attached multi-species community bacteria by as much as 76% ± 46%. There is only one article demonstrated the inhibitory effect of NAC on P. aeruginosa adherence and biofilm formation in vitro by the number of viable cell counts previously, and also revealed that ciprofloxacin/NAC combination showed the highest ability

to inhibit biofilm synthesis and disrupt preformed selleck screening library mature biofilms [19]. In our research, inhibitory effects of drugs on biofilms not only determined by the viable count technique, but also were imaged using CLSM and quantified biofilm structures by COMSTAT program, EPS production in the presence of NAC also be examined quantitatively. CLSM can provide three-dimensional, noninvasive inspection and computer reconstruction of mature biofilms Masitinib (AB1010) without

appreciable distortion of architecture in a manner similar to computer-assisted tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods. COMSTAT comprises some features for quantifying three-dimensional biofilm image stacks [20]. Biomass represents the overall volume of the biofilm, substratum coverage reflects how efficiently the substratum is colonized by bacteria of the population, the surface area of biomass is the area which summation of all biomass voxel surfaces exposed to the background, the surface to volume ratio is the surface area divided by the bio-volume which indicates how the biofilm adapts to the environment, roughness provides a measure of how much the thickness of the biofilm varies, and it is also an indicator of biofilm heterogeneity. Our results showed that NAC dispersed the biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa. By visual inspection of CLSM images, NAC disrupted and inhibited PAO1 biofilms, fluorescence and thickness decreased after exposure to NAC and there were dose-dependent effects. Biofilms were nearly detached at 10 mg/ml NAC. Using COMSTAT software, the PAO1 biofilm biomass decreased and its heterogeneity increased gradually in direct proportion to the NAC concentration. NAC also had an independent anti-microbial effect on biofilm-associated P. aeruginosa at 2.5 mg/ml (P <0.01) and had a synergistic effect with CIP.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

1996; Seward 1996) If the authors believed that their

1996; Seward 1996). If the authors believed that their ACP-196 solubility dmso patients were severely poisoned, why did they not initiate chelation therapy for them? If the patients’ poisoning was not so severe, why the authors concluded that plasma lead had

been about 20 μg/L at severe poisoning? I think, with respect to the patients’ clinical manifestations and blood lead levels [median blood lead level at first sampling was 790 (520–1,600) μg/L], their cases had mild to moderate poisoning (not severe) (Kosnett 2007; Henretig 2011), and their conclusion seems not to be correct. Thanks for this interesting study. Conflicts of interest None. References Henretig FM (2011) Lead. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE (eds) Goldfrank’s toxicologic emergencies, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1266–1283 Kosnett MJ (2007) Lead. In: Olson KR Rapamycin (ed) Poisoning

and drug overdose, 15th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 237–242 Rentschler G, Broberg K, Lundh T, Skerfving S (2011) Long-term lead elimination from plasma and whole blood after poisoning. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, June 24 [Epub ahead of print] Romeo R, Aprea C, Boccalon P, Orsi D, Porcelli B, Sartorelli P (1996) Serum erythropoietin and blood lead concentrations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 69(1):73–75CrossRef Saryan LA, Zenz C (1994) Lead and its compounds.

In: Zenz C, Dickerson OB, Horvath EP Jr (eds) Occupational CHIR-99021 datasheet medicine, 3rd edn. St. Louis, Mosby, pp 506–541 Seward JP (1996) Occupational lead exposure and management. West J Med 165:222–224″
“Introduction Mental health complaints such as stress, mild depression, and anxiety disorders, often referred to as common mental disorders (CMDs), can lead to impairments in work performance (Aronsson et al. 2000; Hilton et al. 2008; Lerner et al. 2004; Lerner and Henke 2008; McKnight and Kashdan 2009). These impairments result not only in lower productivity; but in certain occupations, they can have serious consequences as well, e.g., in the work of nurses and allied health professionals. In these professions, consequences of impaired work functioning can affect the health of the caregiver as well their patients. Examples of these deleterious effects include medication errors, needle stick injuries, near errors, and decreased patient satisfaction (Gartner et al. 2010). These consequences are even more noteworthy given the high incidence of CMDs in this occupational group. The relative risk of depression is highest for nurses, RR = 3.5, 95% CI (1.3, 9.6), as compared with other human service workers and other healthcare workers (Wieclaw et al. 2006).

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Of the 127 SPYS16 0026 isolates, 125 belonged to the emm12 type

Of the 127 SPYS16.0026 isolates, 125 belonged to the emm12 type. The first isolate resistant to SmaI digestion was identified in central Taiwan in 1998 and was an emm33 type. The emm12:SPYS16.0026 strain was detected for the first time in 1999 [7]. Our previous studies indicated that the emm12:SPYS16.0026 strain is most likely derived from an emm12:SPYS16.0013 strain by an insertion of a large DNA fragment into the genome [7]. The large DNA segment could have carried the gene(s) responsible for DNA methylation and resistance to cleavage by SmaI. These

strains were analyzed with SgrAI. Clustering analysis of the PFGE-SgrAI patterns revealed diverse genetic relationships among the emm12:SPYS16.0026 strains (Figure 3). The high genetic divergence suggests that the emm12:SPYS16.0026 strains have derived from multiple origins. Recently, Ceritinib manufacturer Euler et al. [12] have shown that resistance to SmaI cleavage is due to the presence of a DNA methyltransferase gene, which is carried on a mobile chimeric element that has transposon- and bacteriophage-like HM781-36B characteristics. This mobile element may explain the high genetic diversity among the SmaI-resistant strains that emerged in such short period of time. The fluctuation of scarlet fever

cases between 2000 and 2006 may be partially explained by the shuffling of several prevalent emm clones. However, the dramatic drop in reported cases in 2003 is difficult to explain. In early 2003, Taiwan was badly hit by a severe SARS outbreak. The SARS epidemic in Taiwan had two distinct stages, with the beginning in the late-February (the 9th week) and the second ending in mid-June [13]. The not stage I epidemic occurred from late-February to mid-April (the 9th to 16th week) and consisted of only scattered, sporadic cases, with most of the patients

having recently traveled to China. In this stage, the disease did not cause much panic and the level of scarlet fever remained high. In stage II (from mid-April to mid-June or the 17th to 24th week), several clusters of infection occurred via intra-hospital or inter-hospital transmission. Enormous panic spread over the whole Country after an outbreak of nosocomial infection was confirmed on the 22nd of April. The disease was subsequently transmitted to several hospitals and spread from the North to the South. The number of scarlet fever cases dropped remarkably during this period. Because a large portion of the SARS infections was associated with hospitals, fear of SARS drove people out of hospitals and public places. This fear and the change of people’s behavior may have significantly reduced the number of outpatients and the transmission of many infectious diseases, including scarlet fever. In fact, the SARS outbreak had a long-term effect on the occurrences of scarlet fever. After the SARS epidemic, the number of weekly scarlet fever reports was often lower than the overall average until the first half of 2004.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

J Bacteriol 2004, 186:4748–4758 PubMedCrossRef Competing interest

J Bacteriol 2004, 186:4748–4758.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SS developed the study concept. SS conceived and designed a majority of the experiments. SS and TR performed the experiments. SS wrote the paper. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The microbial ecology of pathogenicity remains poorly understood in the transmission of many infectious diseases

– some of which are vectored by foods. Tomatoes, for example, have been implicated in Salmonella outbreaks at least seventeen times in the period spanning 1990 to 2010 (Table 1). Whether or not there are distinctive attributes of tomato plant anatomy or tomato crop field ecology that influence downstream persistence Dasatinib manufacturer of Salmonella in foods remains to be shown. Table 1 Salmonella – Tomato outbreaks Tomato type Outbreak year Location PKC inhibitor by state Illnesses reported Salmonellasubtype Tomato 1990 SC 176 S. Javiana Tomato 1993 SC 100 S. Montevideo Tomato 1998-99 FL 86 S. Baildon Tomato 2000 FL, GA 29 S. Thompson Red

Round 2002 VA 512 S. Newport Grape 2002 FL or Mexico 12 S. Newport Roma 2002 FL or Mexico 90 S. Javiana Roma 2004 FL, GA or SC 471 S. Javiana Roma 2004 FL 123 S. Braenderup Red Round 2005 VA 71 S. Newport Tomato 2005 CA 77 S. Enteritidis Roma 2005 FL 76 S. Braenderup Red Round 2006 OH 186 S. Typhimurium Red Round 2006 NA 107 S. Newport Red Round 2007 VA 65 S. Newport Red Round 2010 FL 46 S. Newport Red Round 2010 VA 99 S. Newport Internal FDA list compiled by Captain Thomas Hill. By the time a fresh fruit or vegetable makes it to the point of human consumption, it has traveled through multiple diverse, yet interwoven, ecologies. It has been affected by agricultural practices, geographic pressures, processing effluents, and microbial landscapes

that contribute a vast array of genetic potential. Pathogen-contaminated foods still result in human deaths: as was highlighted in Germany with the E. coli O104 outbreak of the summer of 2011 [1]. Since fresh produce is prepared and consumed, often without heating or other types of “kill” steps, a comprehensive understanding of biological risks acetylcholine will improve future risk management. The number of recognized microbial communities associated with human and environmental ecologies has increased dramatically in the past ten years. A potential “core” microbiome or “enterotypes” of human gut flora have been proposed [2]. Plants, like humans, are comprised of differentiated cells that comprise organs. Microbial constituents of human organs such as skin have been shown to be niche-driven and unique in comparison to one another [3]. It is also likely that different levels of food safety risk correlate with different plant parts, different plant species and the diverse geographic regions in which crops are grown.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

APJCP 2014,15(1):517–535 103 Valizadeh H, Mohammadi G, Ehyaei R

APJCP 2014,15(1):517–535. 103. Valizadeh H, Mohammadi G, Ehyaei R, Milani M, Azhdarzadeh M, Zakeri-Milani P, Lotfipour F: Antibacterial activity of clarithromycin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Pharmazie Int J Pharm Sci 2012,67(1):63–68. 104. Hasani A, Sharifi Y, Ghotaslou R, Naghili B, Aghazadeh M, Milani M: Molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical

RAD001 chemical structure specimens in Northwest Iran. Indian J Med Microbiol 2012, 30:2. 105. Sharifi Y, Hasani A, Ghotaslou R, Varshochi M, Hasani A, Soroush MH, Aghazadeh M, Milani M: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci among clinical isolates from north-west Iran: identification of therapeutic surrogates. J Med Microbiol 2012,61(4):600–602. 106. Farajnia S, Hassan M, HallajNezhadi S, Mohammadnejad L, Milani M, Lotfipour F: Determination of indicator bacteria in pharmaceutical samples by multiplex PCR. J Rapid Meth Aut Mic 2009,17(3):328–338. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SWJ conceived the

study check details and participated in its design and coordination. EA participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. AA, RPA, SFA, HTN, YH, KNK, and MM helped in drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Chemiresistive sensors have aroused much attention in environment monitoring, industry and agriculture production, medical diagnosis, military, and public safety, etc. nowadays [1–5]. In order to meet the requirements of industry and other fields’ demands, semi-conducting metal oxide, organic semiconductors, and carbon materials, etc., which have high aspect ratio and large specific surface area, have been widely used as sensing materials and the excellent performances of the resultant devices the have been achieved [6–8]. Graphene, as a new member of carbon family, has emerged as a promising candidate for sensing because of its unique electronic, excellent mechanical, chemical,

and thermal properties [9–18]. Excellent sensing performance of graphene towards different kinds of gases, including NO2, NH3, H2O, CO, trimethylamine, I2, ethanol, HCN, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and DNT, have been reported [19–26]. Generally, there are three main methods to prepare graphene materials: micromechanical exfoliation of graphite [16], chemical vapor deposition [27], and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) [28]. The resultant graphene materials can be considered as excellent candidates for gas sensing, especially for chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO sheets have great potential for using as chemiresistors [29–32] due to their scalable production, easy processability in solution, large available surface area, etc.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

For these reasons, lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth

For these reasons, lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM), which was recently developed by Klare et al. [11], should be considered the new testing standard for assessing the antimicrobial resistance spectra of lactic acid bacteria. Despite this medium being shown to be very effective for establishing antimicrobial susceptibilities of two species of Pediococcus, namely, P. acidilactici, and P. pentosaceus [10], it previously has not been used to study the prevalence, and spectrum, of antimicrobial resistance among other members of the genus. Overall, the use of antimicrobial compounds by industries such as animal husbandry,

brewing, and fuel ethanol to combat Pediococcus contaminants (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin, and Virginiamycin which is structurally similar to Synercid) is long-standing. However, knowledge about the resistance of pediococci VX-770 in vitro to antimicrobial agents is minimal [12]. As such, the focus of this research was to determine whether the use of antimicrobial hop-compounds in the brewing industry is associated with an increase in the overall antimicrobial resistance of Pediococcus isolates. Here we report on the testing of isolates from six species of the genus Pediococcus against 17 antimicrobial compounds using LSM broth in commercially available Sensititre GPN3F Gram-positive MIC plates (TREK Diagnostic

Systems, Cleveland Ceritinib ic50 OH). Results Antimicrobial susceptibility testing Twenty-nine isolates, including six species of the Pediococcus genus were tested. Distribution of isolates by species and their ability to grow in beer is given in Table 1. Antimicrobial Vorinostat resistance testing was reproducible and the LSM by itself (containing no antimicrobial compounds) was permissive to the rapid growth of all Pediococcus isolates tested. All isolates used in this study were capable of producing visible turbidity in LSM broth after an incubation period of 24 hours. Isolates were cultured for a period

of 48 hours in GPN3F plates so as to allow formation of larger bacterial pellets and thus a more accurate determination of the MIC for a given antibiotic. All control wells in the GPN3F plates produced appropriate results. Eight of the 29 isolates were randomly selected and tested in duplicate by the same method, and no variance in MICs was observed. The antimicrobial compounds and dilutions tested by the GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates are listed in Additional file 1. Table 1 Pediococcus isolates. Species N Origin Growth in Beera     Brewery Other b Unknown + – acidilactici 6 4 1 1 1 5 claussenii 12 12 0 0 11 1 ropyc (5) (5) (0) (0) (5) (0) non-ropyd (7) (7) (0) (0) (6) (1) damnosus 1 1 0 0 0 1 inopinatus 1 1 0 0 0 1 parvulus 5 0 5 0 1 4 ropy (1) (0) (1) (0) (0) (1) non-ropy (4) (0) (4) (0) (1) (3) pentosaceus 4 1 2 1 0 4 Total 29 19 8 2 13 16 a Previously reported by Haakensen et al. [3, 4].

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

In all studies performed in Europe where both groups were include

In all studies performed in Europe where both groups were included, immigrant groups in European countries had significantly lower

serum 25(OH)D concentrations than indigenous European groups [1–4, 25–32]. Determinants In the last column of each table, the determinants for a lower 25(OH)D concentration are presented. As expected, many studies found a lower exposure to sunlight (e.g., behavior or season) [1–3, 13–18, 27, 32–38] or a restricted intake of vitamin D (via food or supplements) [1, 14, 17, 33, 39, 40], to be associated with a lower serum 25(OH)D concentration. Neither gender nor age were unambiguously associated with the serum 25(OH)D concentration. Female gender was found to be a determinant for a low serum 25(OH)D concentration [2, 4, 15, 33, 35, 36, 41, 42], but not in all studies that compared males

and females [3, 19, 20, 31, 41, 43]. Both a younger MK-8669 solubility dmso age [33] and an older age [15, 17] were associated with a lower serum 25(OH)D concentration. Other determinants of lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations—explained by association with exposure to sunlight or dietary habits—are a lower socioeconomic position [34, 42], a shorter duration of education [33, 39], or a lower educational level [14], living in an urban environment [20, 21], and an earlier start time to the workday [44]. In newborn children, a mother’s lower serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a lower serum 25(OH)D concentration in the child [18, 45, 46]. Discussion The vitamin D status of Turkish, Moroccan, Indian, Montelukast Sodium and sub-Sahara African immigrant BTK activity inhibition populations in Europe was poor compared to the indigenous European populations. The vitamin D states of studied populations in Turkey, Morocco, and India varied between concentrations similar to the immigrant populations in Europe (low) and concentrations similar to or higher than the European indigenous populations (high). Determinants of the serum 25(OH)D

concentration included both sources of vitamin D: exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D. Gender and age were each associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration in both directions. Differences according to gender and age group could be the result of biological differences but might also reflect behavioral differences; dress style (e.g., wearing a veil) is often mentioned as a reason for a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among women than men. A lower serum 25(OH)D concentration among older participants can partly be the result of the lower capacity of the skin to produce vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. The study that found lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations at younger ages [33] might have had a study population that was too young to find an effect of a lower skin capacity (their mean age was below 40 years).

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:252906–1-252906–3 CrossRef 42 Kohl AS, C

Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:252906–1-252906–3.CrossRef 42. Kohl AS, Conforto AB, Z’Graggen WJ, Lang A: An integration transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping technique using non-linear curve fitting. J Neurosci Meth 2006, 157:278–284.CrossRef

43. Kumar KV: Pseudo-second order models for the adsorption of safranin onto activated carbon: comparison of linear and non-linear regression methods. J Hazard Mater 2007, 142:564–567.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions HJQ carried out all of the experimental work, data analysis of the obtained experimental results, and drafting of the manuscript. KYC had played a vital role in assisting HJQ in high throughput screening the experimental work and data analysis as well as in revising and approving the submission of the final manuscript for publication. Both authors read and approved the final PLX4032 cost manuscript.”
“Background Absorption of external impact energy has long been a research topic with the pressing need from civil [1, 2] to military needs [3, 4]. In particular, effective absorption of mechanical energy at low-impact speed,

i.e., below 100 m/s is of great interest [5, 6]. As one of the major branches of fullerene family, the carbon nanotube (CNT) has demonstrated an outstanding mechanical energy dissipation ability through water-filled CNT [7], CNT forest and bundle [7], CNT/epoxy nanocomposites [8], CNT immersed in nonaqueous liquid [9], intercalating vertical alignment with aligned existing layered compounds [10], and sponge-like material containing self-assembled interconnected CNT skeletons [11], among others. The advantage lies within the CNTs’ intriguing mechanical properties, i.e., ultra-strong (Young’s modulus of 0.9 to 5.5 TPa [12–14] and tensile strength of 60 GPa [12]) and ultra-light, as well as

the tube structure which buckles upon external loadings [15]. Both theoretical modeling [16–18] and experiments [19–21] have proposed that the energy dissipation density of CNTs could be on the order of 200 J/cm3, about 1-2 order of magnitudes Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II over traditional engineering material [1]. Naturally, another branch of fullerene family with a spherical shape, i.e., the buckyball, also possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to CNTs. Man et al. [22] examined a C60 in collision with a graphite surface and found that the C60 would first deform into a disk-like structure and then recover to its original shape. It is also known that C60 has a decent damping ability by transferring impact energy to internal energy [23, 24]. This large deformation ability under compressive strain of C60 was also verified by Kaur et al. [25]. For higher impact energy, Zhang [26] employed C60/C320 to collide with mono/double layer graphene, and the penetration of graphene and the dissociation of buckyball were observed.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment