3–5 Once initiated the process of DCs maturation, the expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules increases.1–4 The DCs migrate to the draining lymph nodes, as a result of the up-regulation of CCR7, which renders them responsive to CCL19 and CCL21 chemokines that direct their migration to the T-cell areas of lymph nodes.6 Nivolumab datasheet Finally, the mature DCs present the antigen to naive CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The maturational
status can be modulated by different stimuli.5 The impact of microbial products through Toll-like receptor leads to DCs that produce interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23 and prime T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 responses.7,8 In contrast, in the absence of inflammatory signals, ‘semi-mature’ DCs produce IL-10, which primes a regulatory T-cell response.9 However, mediators other than cytokines and pathogens have a great impact on the physiology of DCs. Prostaglandin E2 acting on mature DCs induces the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in a Th2 profile.10,11 Also, histamine activates murine DCs through the increase of endocytosis and cross-presentation of
extracellular antigens.12 Leukotriene C4 (LTC4), a member of the cysteinyl leukotriene family (CysLT), is a potent pro-inflammatory lipid mediator, produced by inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, basophils and macrophages.13,14 It is a potent spasmogen and vasoconstrictor, promotes mucus secretion, and together with histamine is a known immunomodulatory agent of allergic and inflammatory reactions.15–17 The pharmacological effects of CysLT are conducted selleck chemicals through two types of membrane receptors – CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 – which are coupled to protein-G.18 Remarkably, these receptors were primarily described at the level of lung mucosa and intestinal mucosa at the ileum and colon.19 In many diseases affecting lung and intestinal mucosa, such as asthma and interstitial cystitis, the use of montelukast, a selective antagonist of CysLTR1, minimizes the effects of these pathologies, probably through the
inhibition of cytosolic Ca2+.20–22 It is known that LTC4 induces the chemotaxis of DCs from the skin.23 Zymosan, a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classic Toll-like L-gulonolactone oxidase receptor 4 agonist, stimulates the production of CysLT by DCs.24,25 Despite these observations, their impact on cytokine production by DCs is unclear. In spite of the close relationship between mast cells and DCs in mucosal epithelium and skin, little progress has been made regarding the impact of CysLT on the genesis of DCs. In the present study, we analysed the effects of LTC4 on the phenotype and function of murine inflammatory DCs.26 In particular, we studied the differential expression of CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors in immature and LPS-activated DCs.