J linger wrote: “The state takes away our responsibility but cannot ease our grief, we have to carry it alone and it reaches deep within our dreams.” Shell shock Psychiatric casualties were reported very early in the war, in numbers that no-one had anticipated. The French physician Milian reported four cases of “battle hypnosis” following military actions in 1914.6 The well-known German psychiatrist Robert Gaupp reported in 1917: The big artillery battles of December 1914… filled our hospitals with a large number of unscathed soldiers
and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical officers presenting with mental disturbances. From then on, that number grew at a constantly increasing rate. At first, these soldiers were hospitalized with the others … Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but soon we had to open special psychiatric hospitals for them. Now, psychiatric www.selleckchem.com/products/Cediranib.html patients make up by far the largest category in our armed forces …The main causes are the fright and anxiety brought about by the explosion of enemy shells and mines, and seeing maimed or dead comrades …The resulting symptoms are states of sudden muteness, deafness … general tremor, inability to stand or walk, episodes of loss of
consciousness, and convulsions.7 In his review of 88 cases of mental disorder in 1915, the French psychiatrist Régis had expressed a very similar opinion about Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the etiological role of witnessing the horrible death of comrades: “20% only presented with a physical wound, but in all cases fright, emotional shock, and seeing maimed comrades had been a major factor.” The clinical picture of war neuroses differed only slightly in the two World Wars. In the British military, patients presenting with various mental disorders resulting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from combat stress were originally diagnosed as cases of shell shock, before this diagnosis was discouraged in an attempt to limit the number of cases. It is not known when the term began to be used. According
to Merskey,8 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the first mention may be a story published in the Times on February 6, 1915, indicating that the War Office was arranging to send soldiers suffering from “shock” to be treated in special wards at the National Hospital for the Paralyzed and Epileptic, in Queen Square. Also in February 1915, the term shell shock was used by Charles Myers in an article in The Lancet to describe three soldiers suffering 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl from “loss of memory, vision, smell, and taste.”9,10 Myers reported on three patients, admitted to a hospital in Le Touquet during the early phase of the war, between November 1914 and January 1915. These patients had been shocked by shells exploding in their immediate vicinity and presented with remarkably similar symptoms. According to Myers, these cases bore a close relation to “hysteria.” The first two patients were transferred to England for further treatment after a couple of weeks (the third was still being treated in Le Touquet when the article was published).