A sonic explosion can occur, releasing a large amount of energy, although for very short (μm) distances. Tissues and cells in the vicinity can be damaged. Cavitation is the responsible mechanism for the disintegrations of stones in
lithotripsy. Chemical effects, such as the acceleration of chemical reactions, can occur due to an increase in the temperature and pressure. These effects would be expected in high-intensity inhibitors purchase Ultrasound fields . When ultrasound beams are focused a focal diameter of 1mm can be achieved at 1.5MHz. The length of the focus is 5–20 times larger than the diameter. If the ultrasound beam is transmitted from an applicator 2–3cm Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in diameter, the ultrasound Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intensity at the millimeter-sized focal spot can be several hundred times higher than in the overlying tissues. Typical diagnostic ultrasound transducers deliver ultrasound with time-averaged intensities of approximately 0.1–100mW/cm2 or compression and rarefaction pressures of 0.001–0.003MPa, depending on the mode of imaging. In contrast, HIFU transducers deliver ultrasound with intensities in the range of 100–10,000W/cm2 to the focal region, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with peak compression pressures of up to 30MPa and peak
rarefaction pressures up to 10MPa . The ultrasound exposure drops off rapidly across the area within the sonication path and therefore focusing provides a method to overcome attenuation losses and to concentrate energy deep
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the body while avoiding the surrounding tissues . Focusing is dramatically improved with the use of transducer arrays that are driven with signals having the necessary phase difference to obtain a common focal point. The main advantage of these phased arrays is that the focal spot can be controlled. In addition, the electronically focussed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical beam allows multiple focal points to be induced simultaneously or fast electronic scanning of the focal spot which increases the size of the focal region. This feature allows shorter treatment time [20, 21]. 3. Image Guided Focused Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery 3.1. Using Clinical Imaging and Drug Delivery Systems The combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound together with high-resolution Adenylyl cyclase MR guidance has created a system that can produce tissue destruction deep within solid organs without any invasion. Accurate targeting and detailed accurate thermal mapping are provided by MRI . In recent years imaging has been combined with FUS to provide real-time manipulation of drug guidance within the targeted area. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are widely used clinical imaging modalities that can be combined with FUS for image guided FUS treatments. In the area of drug delivery ultrasound microbubbles or nanocarriers providing contrast enhancement can be used.