Three members of the peroxiredoxin family were identified
in M. magneticum AMB-1. All purified recombinant proteins displayed thiol-dependent peroxidase activities. Allelic replacement mutagenesis revealed that, although the absence of the three peroxidase genes had no effect on either the growth or the formation of magnetosome under anaerobic conditions, the growth of mutants was compromised in click here an aerobic culture. Moreover, an accelerated loss in the genomic ‘magnetosome island’ (MAI) was observed in the null mutants cultured in the presence of oxygen. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-peroxidases identified act as key antioxidants in magnetotactic bacteria and, as a result, contribute to maintaining their capacity to synthesize magnetosome by shielding the genetic stability of the genomic MAI in adaptation to constant physiological change and stress. Magnetotactic bacteria represent a diverse group of microorganisms that can synthesize membrane-enclosed magnetosomes, nanosized single-domain magnetic crystals, which cause them to orient and migrate along magnetic field lines (Komeili, 2007; Schuler, 2008). Magnetosome formation has been proposed
to be a complex process involving the functions of a variety of proteins. A unique genomic region named ‘magnetosome island’ (MAI) has thus been identified in magnetotactic bacteria and proved to be Selleck Seliciclib the genetic basis for the synthesis of magnetosome (Fukuda et al., 2006; Jogler et al., 2009). While magnetotaxis was originally proposed to help guide cells to reach the less oxygenated regions of aquatic habitats, it became clear later that magnetotactic bacteria would take advantage of both magnetotaxis and aerotaxis to alternate their swimming direction to locate the optimal oxygen concentration (Smith et al., 2006). Compared with polar magneto-aerotactic bacteria, Thymidylate synthase axial magnetotactic spirilla
including Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 combine a passive alignment along the magnetic field with an active, temporal oxygen sensory mechanism to efficiently locate the optimal habitat zone (Zhulin et al., 1996; Zhao et al., 2007). Therefore, during this kind of aerotaxis, cells constantly sample the oxygen concentration to determine their direction of migration. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in any organism that uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor has to be dealt with continuously to avoid the buildup of these reactive molecular species, which may result in oxidative damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and membranes (Storz & Imlay, 1999; Atack et al., 2008; Korshunov & Imlay, 2010). Over the course of evolution, bacteria have well been equipped with a variety of protective enzymatic systems to prevent ROS-mediated damage (Pesci et al., 1994; Chelikani et al., 2004; De Smet et al., 2006; Dubbs & Mongkolsuk, 2007).