005) are marked in bold A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

005) are marked in bold. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis

was performed to determine which major bacterial groups were responsible for the differences detected in the overall microbiota profile using %G + C selleck kinase inhibitor profiling. The redundancy analysis (RDA) of the PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that ABO blood groups are statistically significantly associated with the intestinal microbiota composition, as determined by PCR-DGGE primers targeting all bacteria (UNIV: p = 0.015) and the Eubacterium rectale ARS-1620 cell line – Clostridium coccoides group (EREC: p = 0.032) (Figure2). The microbiota from subjects harbouring the B antigen (B and AB) differed significantly from non-B antigen blood groups (A and O) in regard to the levels of the UNIV (p = 0.005), the EREC (p = 0.005) and the Clostridium learn more leptum (CLEPT) (p = 0.01) bacterial groups. In addition to the distinct clustering of the microbiota profiles, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed significant ABO blood group related differences in the species diversity within the EREC and the CLEPT groups, with blood groups B and AB showing the highest, and blood

group O the lowest, diversity (Figure3). These findings suggest that the mucosal expression of blood group antigen B, in particular,

appears to affect the dominant microbiota composition. The Lepirudin association of blood group B antigen is also reflected in the %G + C-range of 30–44. Figure 2 RDA-visualization of PCR-DGGE profile similarities. RDA visualization of microbiota profile similarities and ABO blood group types, revealing a clustering of the samples. Each dot represents a single individual and diamonds mark the calculated data centre points of the corresponding blood groups. P-value marks the statistical significance of the difference between blood group centres, computed with ANOVA-like permutation test from PCR-DGGE intensities grouped by ABO blood group (A) or by the presence of B-antigen (B). Dot colours for the ABO blood groups are as follows: A = red, B = blue, AB = green and O = black and for the B-antigen = blue and non-B antigen red, respectively. UNIV represent the PCR-DGGE obtained with the universal eubacterial primers (dominant bacteria), EREC with the Eubacterium rectale – Clostridium coccoides primers and CLEPT with the Clostridium leptum primers.

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