1 DC-SIGN Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecul

1. DC-SIGN Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin, (DC-SIGN ) also known as CD209, Clec4L, is a C-type membrane lectins abundantly expressed on immature

DCs, macrophages, endothelial vascular cells, atherosclerotic plaques, and lymphatic vessels, but not on plasmacytoid DCs (Table 1 and Figure 1). Like the MR, DC-SIGN recognizes carbohydrates including mannose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and N-acetylgiucosamine residues on pathogens mediating endocytosis, thus activating and tailoring the adaptive immune response against pathogens. DC-SIGN also binds yeast Dasatinib purchase derived mannan and Lewis blood group Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antigens and sialylation or sulfation of Lex completely abrogated binding to DC-SIGN [68]. DC-SIGN contributes to HIV pathogenesis. HIV-1 gp120, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical binds to DC-SIGN on monocyte derived DCs more than 80% with residual binding to CD4, as opposed to HIV-1 only binding to CD4 on blood DCs [69]. After binding to DC-SIGN on DCs, HIV-1 is transported

by DCs into lymphoid tissues and consequently facilitates HIV-1 infection of target CD4+ T cells [70, 71]. DC-SIGN also has high affinity binding for ebola virus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, respiratory syncytial virus, measles virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical amastigote, Helicobacter pylori, Leishmania mexicana, Schistosoma mansoni, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Candida albicans, transmitting infection (virus, bacteria, and yeast) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to susceptible

cells and, inducing Th1 Th2 T cell responses [72–77]. Recently, it was shown that DC-SIGN is the receptor for the major house dust mite (Der p1) and dog allergens (Can f1) [78]. There is no binding of DC-SIGN with E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus [68]. DC-SIGN was identified through its high affinity interaction with ICAM-3 which facilitates DC interactions with T cells and contributes to the regulation of primary immune responses [70, 71]. DC-SIGN also interacts with ICAM-2 which is responsible Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for DC migration [79]. In view of these findings, DC-SIGN has implications for antigen targeting and stimulation of T-cell responses and has been studied as a potential receptor for vaccine targeting. In order to understand the molecular basis of internalization of ligands by DC-SIGN, the putative internalization motif within the cytoplasmic tail was modified resulting in reduced internalization almost after exposure to antigen [80]. DC-SIGN ligand complexes are internalized by DCs into late endosomes, early lysosomes, and are processed and presented to CD4+ T cells [80]. Further, anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies are internalized up to 1,000-fold more efficiently compared to control monoclonal antibody and found in intracellular vesicles, indicating that targeting DC-SIGN targets the MHC class II pathway [81].

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