1E), P-values being < 00001 for the p-(Ser5)-C/EBP β/β-actin rat

1E), P-values being < 0.0001 for the p-(Ser5)-C/EBP β/β-actin ratio in the K5 condition (24 h) as compared with the K25 condition (24 h) (Z = 4.0638), as well as for the K5 condition (24 h) as compared with the K5 condition (8 h); unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-test (Z = 3.5731). In order to determine whether C/EBP β was actually sumoylated, as suggested by the putative Ku-0059436 datasheet molecular mass of the 50-kDa isoform, immunoprecipitation was performed. Proteins extracted from control CGN cultures were immunoprepicitated with antibody against C/EBP β, SUMO-2/3, or SUMO-1, as it has been previously demonstrated that C/EBP β is mainly modified by the SUMO family members SUMO-2 and SUMO-3

(Eaton & Sealy, 2003). As shown in Fig. 2A, C/EBP β co-immunoprecipitated with SUMO-2/3, but not with SUMO-1. Moreover, double immunofluorescence histochemistry selleck kinase inhibitor showed co-localization of C/EBP β and SUMO-2/3 (Fig. 2B). Because post-translational modifications are involved in C/EBP β subcellular localization (Buck et al., 2001; Seeler & Dejean, 2003), western blotting on separated

nuclear and cytosolic fractions and immunocytochemical analysis of C/EBP β isoforms and p-(Ser105)-C/EBP β were performed in CGNs exposed for 24 h to either the K25 or the K5 condition (Fig. 3). As shown in the representative western blot analysis in Fig. 3A, in trophic conditions, in the nuclear fraction, only the 50-kDa isoform was present, whereas in the cytosolic fraction both the 50-kDa isoform and the 35-kDa isoform were present. Following 24 h of exposure to low potassium, in the nuclear fraction, the level of the 50-kDa C/EBP β decreased

while the 21-kDa isoform appeared, whereas in the cytosolic fraction there was a slight decrease in the level of the 35-kDa isoform. p-(Ser105)-C/EBP β was present only in the nuclear fraction of CGNs, and completely disappeared following exposure to low potassium, as indicated by both western blotting (Fig. 3B) and immunocytochemistry (Fig. 3C). Because one of our aims was to investigate the role of C/EBP β isoforms in neuronal survival, we decided to use exogenous C/EBP β isoform expression by transfecting CGNs with EV, pLAP2, pLAP1, and pLIP. Exogenous C/EBP β isoform expression was confirmed by western blotting (Fig 4A). In order to confirm that exogenous C/EBP β isoforms the possessed transcriptional activity, we also tested them in CGNs by co-transfecting CGNs with EV, pLAPs, or pLIP, and with a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of the ODC promoter (pODC–Luc), which is strictly regulated by C/EBP β (Cortés-Canteli et al., 2002). As compared with endogenous levels (EV-transfected CGNs), pLAP2-transfected CGNs showed enhanced luciferase activity (P = 0.0428, Z = 2.0257; unpaired, two-tailed Student’s t-test), whereas pLAP1-transfected CGNs showed no enhanced activity. On the other hand, pLIP-transfected CGNs showed reduced luciferase activity (P < 0.0001, Z = 3.

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