2004) and other shallow-water Serpulid polychaete aggregations (Haines and Maurer 1980a, b; Kirkwood and Burton 1988; Moore et al. 1998). A high fauna density may be sustained in the Filograna aggregations by the abundant supply of food particles passing through the tidal inlet from adjacent productive https://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-98014.html waters each tidal cycle. The increase of fauna density and learn more biomass with aggregation size indicates that colonisation is related to the available surface area provided by aggregation growth (Fig. 3). High benthic densities are also found at high latitudes in tidal inlets in North American waters, but have lower species richness (Odum et al. 1974). The fauna inside the Filograna
aggregations is very species rich compared to corresponding faunas associated with less heterogeneous biogenic structures. In aggregated
clumps of the algae Lithothamnion situated in Norwegian waters with similar currents, a medium-dense and less species rich fauna (55 species, 2593 individuals in 1–1.5 m2) has been found (Sneli 1968). The Filograna aggregations have a much finer structure with numerous tiny tubes in irregular spatial patterns (Knight-Jones and Moyse 1961; Kupriyanova and Jirkov 1997) and the greater heterogeneity probably offers a higher diversity of microhabitats. EGFR phosphorylation Different species were thus found in variously sized holes and crevices of the Filograna aggregations. Increased microhabitat diversity with
Parvulin increased physical structure is probably the most universal and important of the processes enhancing diversity, especially where biogenic structures or the substratum provide more complexity and attachment sites (Sebens 1991). Structures built by sessile animals increase colonisation of other sessile and motile organisms (Dean 1981; Bros 1987) and aggregated or colonial species decelerate passing water into low, intermediate and strong turbulent flow (Okamura 1984; Sebens et al. 1997) so that microhabitat numbers increase (Sebens 1991). The great heterogeneity of Filograna aggregations probably decelerates water into a variety of water velocities suitable for species with different optimal foraging velocities. This may explain the high recorded number of different filter feeders, ranging from quite passive (e.g. poriferans, bryozoans, hydrozoans) to active, pumping water with a muscle apparatus (e.g. bivalves, some ascidians). It is also characteristic that the organism with the highest biomass (the echinoderm Ophiopholis aculeata) can live with the central disc protected within the aggregates but with the filter-feeding arms emerging out into the water passing by. The increase of habitat diversity with heterogeneity is supported by the increase of species richness with increasing size of Filograna aggregations (Fig.