, 2005) The neurotoxicity induced by MeHg is in part attributed

, 2005). The neurotoxicity induced by MeHg is in part attributed to its ability to promote lipid peroxidation (Farina et al., 2011a and Farina et al., 2011b). In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction

also play central role in the toxic events elicited by this organometal (Mori et al., 2007 and Franco et al., 2007). The apoptotic cell death induced by MeHg is in part attributed to release of apoptotic factors from mitochondria (Cecatelli et al., 2010) and lipid Alectinib purchase peroxidation of mitochondrial membranes may play a central role in this process (Franco et al., 2009, Franco et al., 2010a and Franco et al., 2010b). It has been shown that a GPx4 variant is localized to mitochondrial membranes (Pfeifer et al., 2001) and lipid peroxidation is shown to be a major trigger of cell death downstream of GPx4 deletion in animal models, a fact that is Everolimus concentration corroborated by results showing the protective effects of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (Conrad, 2009). Taking this into account, we suggest GPx4 to be a central modulator of cell death during pro-oxidative

events and the inhibitory effects (direct inhibition and lowering protein expression) of MeHg towards this protein may be indicated as a prominent molecular mechanism of toxicity. The inhibitory effects of MeHg towards the selenoproteins GPx1, GPx4 and TrxR1 correlates with the triggering of a cellular response cascade in order to counteract the pro-oxidative outcomes induced by exposure to the organometal. We have shown here that in addition to an increase on HSP70 levels, several antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, GST and GR were up-regulated cerebellum, with a less pronounced response in the cerebral cortex of MeHg poisoned mice. This phenomenon appears to be a common response in several animal models, including rodents and fish (Franco et al., 2009, Branco et al., 2011 and Branco et al., 2012), as well as in invertebrates (Paula et al., 2012). The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is thought to be a pivotal regulator of the ARE-driven cellular defense against oxidative stress and its regulation

appears to be cell specific (Lee et al., 2005). This transcription factor binds to the “antioxidant responsive element”–ARE (Nrf2-ARE pathway) and has been shown to regulate the expression of several antioxidant proteins such as glutathione-S-transferase this website (GST), GPX, GR, SOD, CAT and the thioredoxin system (Tanito et al., 2007 and Schulke et al., 2012). The antioxidant responses after MeHg exposure may be related to an activation of Nrf2-ARE pathway. Reports in literature have demonstrated in cultured cells that MeHg activates Nrf2, which appears to be a limiting factor in the reduction of MeHg toxicity (Wang and Zhang, 2009 and Ni et al., 2011). Notwithstanding, further studies are necessary to clarify the role of Nrf2 in the protection against MeHg-induced deleterious effects under in vivo conditions.

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