2006) The regularly updated list (last update in September 2008)

2006). The regularly updated list (last update in September 2008) included woody species reported in inventories and obtained from herbarium data, taxonomic monographs and revisions. We only included species that reach at least 3 m during some time in their life cycle. We also defined an altitudinal limit of 1,100 m.a.s.l. for our study area in order to exclude dry Andean and Puna vegetation from higher altitudes, which gradually intermingles with SDF vegetation at this altitude, especially in the dry inter-Andean valleys. Geographical and altitudinal distribution

was assessed and complemented with Jørgensen and León-Yánez (1999) and Bracko and Zarucchi (1993), including the latest additions for both countries (Ecuador: 2000–2004, Ulloa Ulloa and Neill 2005; Peru: 1993–2003, Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004). We define endemism at two levels: first, we identify endemic species restricted check details CAL-101 to either Ecuador or Peru; second, we identify, and consequently consider as endemic, those species restricted to the Equatorial Pacific region. We were not able to find accurate altitudinal distribution

data for 29 Ecuadorean species (including four endemics) and for two Peruvian species. We excluded them from the quantitative analyses requiring altitude data. Endemism and conservation assessment were checked with Valencia et al. (2000) for Ecuador, León et al. (2006) for Peru, and the online IUCN Red List database (IUCN 2006). Lozano (2002) in

southern Ecuador and Weberbauer (1945) in northern Peru classified the vegetation into different altitudinal bands, each having a distinctive floristic composition. Following their schemes, we performed an analysis of the elevational distribution of the woody SDF species by assigning them to four broad elevational categories: 0–200 m, 200–500 m, 500–1,000 m, 1,000–1,100 m. Even though we restricted our study to areas below 1,100 m.a.s.l., Cediranib (AZD2171) several species, which are characteristic for SDFs below this altitude, easily reach higher elevations, as for example in the Peruvian inter-Andean valleys (e.g., Weberbauer 1945). We calculated the area of each altitudinal band in a GIS using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM data, with a resolution of 90 m (Jarvis et al. 2008), projected onto a planar coordinate system (UTM 17S, Datum WGS84). To estimate the total area of SDF in each political unit, we also calculated the total departmental or provincial area in the range 0–1,100 m.a.s.l. We worked with two values, first, the absolute number of species in each altitudinal band; second, the density of species per 1,000 km2. The latter value, allowed us to assess if there were differences in absolute species richness or endemism per unit area.

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