22 (1.01–1.46) Age, sex f + m 1.26 (1.03–1.55) Age, sex, employment grade, behavioural and biological risk factors Chandola (2005)f Whitehall UK 2+
10,308 30–55 years 206 cases 4 years Angina pectoris f n.s. m p < 0.01 Kivimäki (2002) Valmet Finland 2+ 812 <27 to >47 years 73 cases 25.6 years CVD mortality f + m 2.36 (1.24–4.42) Age, sex f + m 2.42 (1.02–5.73) Age, sex, occupational group, behavioural and biological risk factors Siegrist (1990) Germany 2− AZD1390 purchase 416 25–55 years 21 cases 6.5 years CHD, morbidity and mortality m 3.42 (0,83)g Age, BMI, SBP, LDL aName of the cohort, if applicable bModified version of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) checklist for cohort studies (Harbour
and Miller 2001) c CHD coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina), CVD cardiovascular disease BLZ945 ic50 dSignificant (p < 0.05, CI excluding 1) results in bold letters. f female, m male, n.s. not significant. Risk estimates for job strain were calculated by comparing the high-strain group with the low-strain group (exception Eaker et al.: high-strain group is the reference group). In most cases, hazard ratios or relative risks were estimated, and in case of other statistical analyses, p values or level of significance is indicated eBlood pressure, and/or lipids, and/or fibrinogen and/or BMI, and/or diabetes are considered as biological risk factors. Smoking, and/or alcohol, and/or low physical activity are considered as behavioural risk factors. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein fExposure was measured more than one time
gRegression coefficient and standard error (logistic RANTES regression) Table 3 Characteristics and results of studies using various models First author/publication year Cohorta/study Country Level of evidenceb Participants (n) Age Cases (n) follow-up duration Stress model/work stress items Outcomec Risk estimate (95% CI) Confounders in minimal modeld Risk estimate (95% CI) Confoundersd,e in fully adjusted model Lynch (1997) Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study Finland 2+ 2,297 42–60 years 182 cases 8.1 years High demand together with low resources and low income CVD, morbidity and mortality m 3.13 (1.48–6.6) Age m 1.54 (0.67–3.