“Performing real-time microscopy has been a vision of endoscopists since the very early phases of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Confocal endomicroscopy, an adaption of confocal laser scanning microscopy, and endocytoscopy, an adaption of white-light microscopy, have been introduced into the endoscopic armamentarium in the past decade. Both techniques yield on-site histological information. Multiple trials have demonstrated
the ability of gastroenterologists to obtain and interpret microscopic images from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and also the hepatobiliary-pancreatic system, during endoscopy. Such microscopic information has LY411575 manufacturer been successfully used in expert hands to minimize sampling error by ‘smart’, microscopically targeted
biopsies and to guide endoscopic interventions. However, endomicroscopy is also unique in its ability to dynamically visualize cellular processes in their native environment free of artefacts. This ability enables fundamental insights into mechanisms of human diseases in clinical and translational science.”
“Background: Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH) in patients with spontaneous cervical Bindarit cell line artery dissection (sCAD).
Methods: 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 +/- 9.8 years) with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of Akt inhibitor sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner’s syndrome) and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into
hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images.
Results: The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p < 0.001 for trend). Agreement was moderate between VWH types in our study and the previously proposed time scheme of signal evolution for cerebral hemorrhage, Cohen’s kappa 0.43 (p < 0.001). There was a strong agreement of CMR VWH classification compared to the time scheme which was proposed for carotid intraplaque hematomas with Cohen’s kappa of 0.74 (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Signal intensities of VWH in sCAD vary over time and multi-sequence CMR can help to determine the age of an arterial dissection. Furthermore, findings of this study suggest that the time course of carotid hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas.