51 In patients with TERT or TERC mutations, aplastic

51 In patients with TERT or TERC mutations, aplastic Selleck R788 anemia or pulmonary fibrosis may be the only clinical presentation.11, 12 Most patients with telomerase mutations and aplastic anemia do not have respiratory failure, and most patients with pulmonary fibrosis do not have cytopenias, suggesting that environmental factors contribute to disease development in a susceptible patient; for example, most patients with telomerase mutations and pulmonary fibrosis are smokers.12, 13 In pedigrees of telomerase mutations, liver disease and aplastic anemia presented alone in different affected individuals, further suggesting a role for environmental factors. In one study, ≈3%

of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis also had cryptogenic cirrhosis, indicating some overlap between clinical features.52 Selleckchem AZD0530 In conclusion, telomerase mutations resulting in telomere erosion appear to be a genetic risk factor for human cirrhosis and may predispose affected subjects to disease progression in combination with environmental injury, further supporting telomere attrition as a causal event in cirrhosis pathophysiology. Establishing how shortened telomeres increase the risk of cirrhosis may allow for the design of future therapies to reduce the risk of hepatic fibrosis in susceptible populations. Patients with mutations

also may be appropriate targets for more aggressive forms of therapy to treat their primary disease given their increased risk of cirrhosis. Additional Supporting 上海皓元 Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Aim:  Several investigators have shown that interferon (IFN) therapy can suppress the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative treatment. We investigated the effect of IFN therapy on the first and second HCC recurrence following hepatic resection of

hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC. Methods:  Subjects included 166 patients who had undergone curative resection for a single HCV-related HCC. We analyzed the outcome after initial hepatic resection and risk factors of a second HCC recurrence following treatment for the first HCC recurrence. Results:  Using multivariate analysis, a non-sustained virological response (non-SVR) was significantly associated with a high incidence of first HCC recurrence. The rate of second HCC recurrence tended to be higher in the non-SVR group than in the SVR group. In the patients with recurrence of multiple tumors or who received non-curative treatment for recurrent HCC, the second HCC recurrence rates were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that non-curative treatment for first HCC recurrence was an independent risk factor for a second HCC recurrence. Among the patients who received curative treatment for their first HCC recurrence, the rates of second recurrence were significantly higher in the non-SVR group than in the SVR group.

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