53 or greater than 3-fold higher risk than an individual with an average BMD. Note that the risk of fracture in individuals with an average BMD is lower than the average fracture risk, since fracture risk is a convex function of BMD. Table 4 Age-adjusted increase in risk of fracture (with 95 % confidence
interval) in women for every 1 SD decrease in bone mineral density (by absorptiometry) below the mean value for age (PF-562271 concentration amended from , with permission LB-100 concentration from the BMJ Publishing Group) Site of measurement Outcome Forearm fracture Hip fracture Vertebral fracture All fractures Distal radius 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 1.8 (1.4–2.2) 1.7 (1.4–2.1) 1.4 (1.3–1.6) Femoral neck 1.4 (1.4–1.6) 2.6 (2.0–3.5) 1.8 (1.1–2.7) 1.6 (1.4–1.8) Lumbar spine 1.5 (1.3–1.8) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) this website 2.3 (1.9–2.8) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) The performance characteristics of ultrasound are similar. Most studies suggest that measurements of broadband ultrasound attenuation or speed of sound at the heel are associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in risk for each standard deviation decrease in the measured variable [32, 54]. Comparative studies indicate that these
gradients of risk are very similar to those provided by peripheral assessment of bone mineral density at appendicular sites by absorptiometric techniques to predict any osteoporotic fracture . However, the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of osteoporosis cannot be applied to ultrasound results. Clinical risk factors A large number
of risk factors for fracture have been identified [55–57]. For the purposes of improving risk assessment, interest lies in those factors that contribute significantly to fracture risk over and above that provided by bone mineral density measurements or age . A good example is age. The same T-score with the same technique Roflumilast at any one site has a different significance at different ages. For any BMD, fracture risk is much higher in the elderly than in the young . This is because age contributes to risk independently of BMD. At the threshold for osteoporosis (T-score = −2.5 SD), the 10-year probability of hip fracture ranges 5-fold in women from Sweden depending on age (Fig. 1) . Thus, the consideration of age and BMD together increases the range of risk that can be identified. Fig. 1 Ten-year probability of hip fracture in women from Sweden according to age and T-score for femoral neck BMD  with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media Over the past few years, a series of meta-analyses has been undertaken to identify additional clinical risk factors that could be used in case finding strategies, with or without the use of BMD. There are a number of factors to be considered in the selection of risk factors for case finding. Of particular importance, in the setting of primary care, is the ease with which they might be used.