[56] In addition, the splicing regulated by minor spliceosomes is

[56] In addition, the splicing regulated by minor spliceosomes is a rate-limiting factor in the gene-splicing process.[56, 58] The speed of splicing alters the splicing as well as the stability of mRNA. Therefore, the disturbance of minor spliceosomes may affect the quality and quantity of many genes

(Fig. 1f–h). Indeed, the mutation of U4atac gene, the product of which is a key component of minor spliceosome, contributes to systemic developmental and degenerative disorders,[59-62] indicating that all tissues are vulnerable to the alteration of minor spliceosomes. Lenvatinib solubility dmso However, patients with the U4atac gene mutation with a less severe phenotype do not show motor neuron disease.[63] This result clearly indicates that selectivity in the motor neuron system cannot be explained simply by the vulnerability of the motor neuron system to the alteration of minor spliceosomes. Decreasing U12 snRNA may explain the selectivity in the motor neuron Metformin cell line system. Interestingly, mutation of the U2 snRNA gene causes selective granule cell loss in mice.[64] This is surprising for two reasons. First, U2 snRNA is involved in the major spliceosome, which is fundamental machinery

for pre-mRNA splicing. Second, although the gene for U2 snRNA is a multicopy, one of the U2 snRNA genes causes selective neurodegeneration. This may explain why the granular cell is more vulnerable to the depletion of U2 snRNA. However, the finding that the each U1 snRNA gene, which is also a multicopy, selectively regulates a subset of targeted genes suggests that each U2 snRNA gene may have a unique property for maintaining a specific type of splicing in specific cells.[65] Indeed, studies using a spinal muscular atrophy Drosophila model suggested Carnitine dehydrogenase that alteration of the splicing of U12 type intron in the specific gene in the intermediate and sensory neurons may result in selective motor neuron death.[66-68] Although the system selectivity in ALS may be explained by the limited TDP-43 pathology, it would be interesting to investigate whether alterations of the specific gene, which is regulated

by minor spliceosomes, may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS. Because the RNA-associated proteins have been identified as causative proteins for ALS as well as spinal muscular atrophy, the disturbance of RNA metabolism may underlie the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. In particular, the decline of minor spliceosome U snRNA in spinal muscular atrophy and ALS suggest the existence of a common molecular mechanism in motor neuron diseases. In addition, the evidence of alterations in the nuclear structure in ALS opens a new avenue for the study of neurodegenerative disease. Interestingly, it has been reported that product of FUS, another causative gene for ALS, interacts with SMN, and the number of Gems decreased in cultured cells depleted of FUS.

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