[70, 71] Nevertheless a definitive comparison between the TLO-inducing capacities of ILCs versus T and/or B cells in vivo has not yet been attempted. The precise mechanisms leading to stromal activation and TLO generation in multiple tissue sites are not yet fully defined. This includes doubt as to whether tissue stromal cells simply convert to a ‘lymphoid-like’ phenotype during inflammation, KU-57788 manufacturer or whether LTos in TLOs arise from distinct progenitors. The tools to begin assessing this second hypothesis have only recently been developed, with sophisticated genetic lineage tracing
and ablation systems leading to the identification of a pro-fibrotic stromal cell population in murine skin that arises during inflammation from a fetal progenitor developmentally distinct from muscle and skin tissue cells. In addition, recent work has revealed that FDCs arise from perivascular platelet-derived growth factor receptor β+ stromal progenitors in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, with this process occurring during chronic inflammation. Interestingly, the development of LN stromal cell subsets from adipocyte precursors has been recently reported. As chronic inflammation of the intestine is associated both with TLOs
and substantial mesenteric fat deposits around the inflamed organ it is possible that inflamed adipose tissue may provide precursors Erlotinib in vivo that subsequently develop into TLO-associated stromal networks in the gut. The specific precursor(s) responsible for differentiating Abiraterone solubility dmso into the various stromal subsets remain elusive, but may well be tissue-specific and disease-specific. Fibroblast-like cells are a potential candidate; fibrocytes are capable of differentiating into FDCs and have been implicated in human inflammatory disease;[78-81] fibroblasts themselves are capable of expressing adhesion molecules and
producing homeostatic chemokines (so mimicking SLO stroma); and large numbers of intestinal fibroblast-like cells up-regulate Podoplanin expression during intestinal inflammation. Nevertheless, there is still much to be revealed about the specific stromal subsets and/or stromal alterations that underlie TLO generation during inflammation, including in the gut. As Table 3 shows, the structural make up of TLOs varies. Most TLOs will develop supportive and effective B-cell zones, sometimes capable of antigen-driven B-cell maturation, somatic hypermutation and class-switching. This can occur via FDC expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, with these processes accompanied by significant lymphangiogenesis[86-88] and vascular remodelling. The level of T-cell zone development varies greatly; although the CCL21 expression often observed in TLOs would suggest that T-cell-zone-associated LTos may be present.