8%). Fracture fixation was carried out in 16 patients and 24 patients underwent a conservative management. Extremities were the
second most common AZD3965 concentration (41.7%) injury site after spinal region. Of these, 12 (22.2%) were lower and 10 (18.5%) were upper extremity trauma. While femur and pelvis www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html fractures were the most common injuries among lower extremity traumas, in upper extremity traumas radius fractures were the first (9.3%, 9.3%, and 7.4%, respectively). Eight (36%) of the patients were managed surgically and the other fractures were managed according to the routine orthopedic principles of fracture management. Spinal region injuries, especially the dorsal area, were the most common injuries accompanying both upper and lower extremities (5.3% and 3.1%, respectively). Fourteen (25.9%) patients had head and neck traumas. No primer traumatic brain injury was observed in any of the patients except for three patients
with pneumocephalus. Only 1 patient had a compression fracture in the frontal region and this patient was discharged after a 4-day monitorization period at the neurosurgery department. Spinal injuries were the most common concomitant injury (6.2%). Eleven (20.4%) patients sustained thoracic trauma and the most common injury specific to this region was rib fractures (16.7%). One patient with multiple rib fractures and hemothorax who underwent tube thoracostomy at the emergency department was operated with urgent thoracotomy as a part of hemorrhagic shock protocol upon drainage of 1300 cc fluid from the chest tube at initial and development of tachycardia (heart rate: Tipifarnib clinical trial 125 bpm) and hypotension (BP: 60/40 mmHg). One patient with pneumomediastinum developed no complication at a 2-week follow-up and was discharged upon regression of the pathology. Ponatinib cell line Yet spinal region injuries were the most common injuries accompanying thoracic injuries (4.9%). Only 1 patient had maxillofacial trauma. Abdominal trauma was not observed
in any patient. Thirteen (24%) patients had injuries to more than one anatomical region. Details of the injury paterns were shown on Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 Characteristics of injury paterns. Figure 2 Details of the injury paterns. Injury severity score (ISS) The range of the injury severity score (ISS) was between 1 and 25 (mean 7.4 ± 6 and median 5). Forty-four (81.5%) cases had minor injuries (ISS = 1-9), 4 (7.5%) had moderate injuries (ISS = 10-15), and 9 (11.1%) had severe injuries (ISS = 16-25). There were no critical injuries (ISS = 26-75). The correlation between ISS and duration of hospital stay was strongly positive, linear, and statistically significant (rs = 0.818, p < 0.05). The duration of hospital stay was prolonged as ISS increased (Table 2). Survey Nineteen (35.2%) patients were discharged from emergency department while 26 (48.1%) were hospitalized and 9 (16.7%) were referred to a tertiary center. Department of neurosurgery hospitalized the highest number of patients (33.3%).