Although the IL-10-modulating capacity of Lm clones on LPS-mature

Although the IL-10-modulating capacity of Lm clones on LPS-matured DCs described in this study was not strong, it is tempting to speculate that the simultaneous presence of LPS and parasites during leishmaniasis may play a role in the disease progression through an increase of IL-10

production and down-regulation of IL-12. Our results indicate that there is a significant variability in the capacity of Lm clones to infect human DCs. This variability depends upon Lm virulence and could involve LmPDI protein. However, Lm clones modulate R788 some signalling pathways favouring their survival in infected DCs independently of their virulence. Furthermore, the capacity of Lm parasites to inhibit CD1a expression strongly may be associated with their capacity to interfere with glycolipid www.selleckchem.com/GSK-3.html presentation, as it has already been demonstrated for L. donovani. Our data present further evidence for the fact that Lm strains can have intrinsic differences in their ability to induce crucial elements of the innate immune response, at least during their initial interactions

with the professional phagocytes. We thank Dr Mehdi Chenik and Sima Drini for manuscript reading (Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnology and Biomolecules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis), Dr Narges Bahi-Jaber (Laboratory of Transmission and Immunobiology of Infection, Institut Pasteur de Tunis) for help in statistical analysis, the Blood Transfusion Service of Tunis for blood samples Ureohydrolase and especially blood donors for the generous donation of their cells. This work was supported by the Tunisian Ministry for Research and Technology (IMM23).

None. “
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has chronically infected an estimated 170 million people worldwide. There are many impediments to the development of an effective vaccine for HCV infection. Dendritic cells (DC) remain the most important antigen-presenting cells for host immune responses, and are capable of either inducing productive immunity or maintaining the state of tolerance to self and non-self antigens. Researchers have recently explored the mechanisms by which DC function is regulated during HCV infection, leading to impaired antiviral T-cell responses and so to persistent viral infection. Recently, DC-based vaccines against HCV have been developed. This review summarizes the current understanding of DC function during HCV infection and explores the prospects of DC-based HCV vaccine. In particular, it describes the biology of DC, the phenotype of DC in HCV-infected patients, the effect of HCV on DC development and function, the studies on new DC-based vaccines against HCV infection, and strategies to improve the efficacy of DC-based vaccines. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen and has led to chronic infection in an estimated 170 million people worldwide. It is a major cause of chronic liver diseases with a substantial morbidity and mortality.

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