An empty vector (pKAN3) was transformed as a negative control Th

An empty vector (pKAN3) was transformed as a negative control. The U791 mutation was chosen, because this mutation was shown to be the most detrimental to ribosome function compared with other possible mutations at this position without affecting the assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit (Song et al., 2007). Selleckchem PD332991 To select for genomic library clones

containing genes that restored protein synthesis ability in U791 ribosomes when overproduced, transformants were plated on LB-agar medium containing 50 μg of chloramphenicol per milliliter of LB (Cm50); at this concentration, cells expressing pRNA122-U791 ribosomes could not grow. The survival ratio for the transformants was about 3 × 10−4, which was about 400 × higher than the background (7 × 10−6 when pKAN3 was transformed).

Plasmids were prepared separately from 50 of BIBF 1120 order the surviving geneomic clones and cotransformed with pRNA122-U791 into E. coli cells. The resulting transformants were tested for their degree of resistance to chloramphenicol in the presence and absence of the inducer IPTG. All clones derived from the genomic library were resistant to Cm100 (MIC=150) only in the presence of IPTG. These results indicated that the CAT mRNA translation in these cells was dependent on both pRNA122-A789 ribosomes and genomic clones. However, all clones showed a MIC of 50 regardless of the presence of an inducer when 10 of the clones derived from cells harboring an empty vector were subjected to the same procedure as described above.

These negative control clones may have survived initially because they managed to grow on selective media due to heavy plating of cells or chromosomal mutations. Restriction enzyme sites analyses were tuclazepam performed with plasmids purified from the 50 clones using the initial EcoRI cloning site. All the clones exhibited a common 6 kbp EcoRI fragment. The results of sequencing analysis of the chromosomal DNA in five clones that contained only the 6.0 kb EcoRI fragment showed that the fragment was located at ∼20 min of the E. coli chromosome. It contained the coding regions of aat, cydC, cydD, two unknown ORFs, and infA. We chose to test whether overexpression of infA was responsible for the partial restoration of the protein synthesis function of the pRNA122-U791 ribosome because this gene encodes a known translational factor, IF1. The coding region for the infA gene was subcloned into pKAN6B, a derivative of pKAN3, and expressed under the arabinose-inducible promoter (pKAN6-IF1). Plasmid pKAN6-IF1 was cotransformed with pRNA122-U791 into DH5α cells and the resulting transformants were tested for their degree of resistance to chloramphenicol in the presence and absence of the inducer IPTG.

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