As detailed in the section entitled Novel protein synthesis is required to maintain a prolonged
IL-10-mediated STAT3 activation, activation of IL-10 signaling via STAT3 rapidly culminates in a reduction in the transcriptional rate of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory genes, whereas simultaneously enhancing the transcription of LPS-induced anti-inflammatory genes. A working model that could explain both actions of IL-10 is one in which STAT3 is directly recruited to the promoter of target genes and, in turn, modifies the composition of the transcriptional complexes or the accessibility of the promoter to the transcriptional machinery. Consistent with this depiction, adenoviral gene delivery of a constitutively active STAT3 in bone marrow-derived DC blocks LPS-induced IL-12p40 gene expression and c-Rel recruitment to the IL-12p40 promoter 43. In this context, IL-1ra
represents a Torin 1 cell line potential target gene of IL-10. Previous studies had indeed shown that IL-10 strongly potentiates the production of IL-1ra in LPS-stimulated phagocytes 12, 14, 44, whereas concomitantly inhibiting pro-inflammatory gene expression. IL-1ra was first isolated in 1986 as a soluble factor that competed with IL-1α and IL-1β for binding to their receptor 45, thus inhibiting their biological activities. It is now well established that the balance between IL-1 and IL-1ra may determine whether the outcome of a given response to damage will be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Indeed, in a variety of experimental animal models, selleck inhibitor an imbalance between IL-1 and IL-1ra in favor of IL-1 has been shown to predispose to the development of diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, granulomatous and fibrotic lung disorders, kidney disease, diseases of the liver and pancreas, graft-versus-host disease, leukemia and cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes, central nervous system diseases, infectious diseases and arterial disease 46. Consistent with the anti-inflammatory
role of IL-1ra, mice lacking a functional IL-1ra gene develop spontaneous signs of polyarthritis, vasculitis or skin inflammation 47–49. Moreover, the use of conditional knockout mice in which IL-1ra production has been selectively Celecoxib deleted in myeloid cells has suggested that IL-1ra derived from monocyte/macrophages and/or neutrophils plays a critical role in controlling the development and severity of collagen-induced arthritis, by modulating Th1 and Th17 responses in lymphoid organs 50. More recently, homozygous germ-line mutations of the sequence encoding the IL-1ra gene (IL1RN) have been demonstrated to cause a human syndrome, named deficiency of IL-1ra, characterized by a striking IL-1-mediated systemic and local inflammation that is apparent soon after birth 51, 52.