Based on observational studies [6,15–19] and expert opinion, curr

Based on observational studies [6,15–19] and expert opinion, current US guidelines recommend immunization of patients with PPV-23 when CD4 counts are above 200 cells/μL [20], whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) states that the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine may be considered for people with HIV infection in WHO clinical stage 1 or, if CD4 testing is available, with a CD4 count above 500 cells/μL [21]. However, study quality and the risk of bias in these studies have not been assessed. Following the recent success of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing vaccine serotype-specific IPD in a cohort consisting primarily of HIV-infected Malawian adolescents [22],

a critical evaluation of PPV-23 effectiveness is needed. Immunity against capsulated bacteria such as pneumococci selleck screening library depends on the formation of opsonic antibodies, which can be produced by B cells in response to polysaccharide stimulation. These antigens are classified as T-cell independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, as they active B cells directly without assistance from T

cells [23]. Untreated HIV-infected subjects GSK 3 inhibitor have reduced antibody responses to PPV-23 [8], which correlate with falling CD4 cell counts [24,25]. HAART partially restores the immune system by reducing HIV replication and immune activation, and improving CD4 cell counts. However, certain abnormalities of the immune system persist even years after HAART initiation, including a low CD4:CD8 ratio, a low naïve:memory cell ratio, expansion of CD28 effector T cells and a reduced T cell repertoire [26]. HAART may affect qualitative aspects of the PPV-23 response by restoring the expression of certain genes used in the PPV-23 response to normal levels and by improving the specific immunoglobulin G response to vaccines, including PPV-23 [11–13,27,28]. Thus, when assessing PPV-23 effectiveness in persons with HIV infection, it

2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase should be borne in mind that the effects of CD4 cell count and HAART treatment may be important. A number of risk factors for pneumococcal disease have been identified over the past 20 years (Table 1). Awareness of these risk factors is critical in the assessment of PPV-23 studies because, unless adjusted for in the statistical analysis, any risk factor for pneumococcal disease may potentially confound the measurement of vaccine effectiveness. CD4 cell count is an example of a well-known risk factor for pneumonia and pneumococcal disease [4,6,16,17,29–31]. Other risk factors related to progression of HIV infection are HIV RNA [4,30,32,33] and clinical disease stage [16,17,29]. The aim of this review was to systematically identify and critically assess all peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature on observational studies and clinical trials of the effectiveness of PPV-23 in terms of clinical endpoints in HIV-infected adults.

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