cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥

cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥300 cells/μL, offered the opportunity to explore

associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections. Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Information on smoking/pneumococcal selleck kinase inhibitor vaccination history was not collected. IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1–2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 [rate 0.67/100 person-years (PY)] and 86 control (rate 0.63/100 PY) patients experienced a pneumonia event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.42; P=0.68]. Median CD4 counts prior to pneumonia were 570 cells/μL (IL-2 arm) and 463 cells/μL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, injecting drug use, detectable HIV viral load (VL) and previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log10 higher VL 1.28; 95% CI

1.11, 1.47; P<0.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4 count prior to the event (HR per 100 cells/μL higher 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 1.0; P=0.04) decreased risk. Compared with controls, the hazard for a pneumonia event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days previously (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.07, 2.60; P=0.02) vs.≥180 days previously (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.70, 1.37; P=0.9). Compared with the control group, pneumonia risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time, with HRs click here of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3–4, 5–6 and 7, respectively. Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate immunodeficiency are high. The mechanism of the association between bacterial pneumonia and Orotic acid recent IL-2 receipt and/or detectable HIV viraemia warrants further exploration. Overall, the rates of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-1-infected individuals are 25-fold higher than in their HIV-negative counterparts

[1]. The risk increases as CD4 T-cell count declines. Pre-combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) incidence rates of 22.7 episodes per 100 person-years (PY) were seen in one large USA-based cohort of HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL [2]. Rates of pneumonia fell to 9.1 episodes/100 PY in the early cART era (1997) [3,4] and further still in the late cART era (2005–2007) to 1.97 episodes/100 PY [5]. Other risks identified included injecting drug use (IDU) as the mode of HIV-1 acquisition, low CD4 cell count, lack of protease inhibitor-containing cART, prior Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP), cigarette smoking [3–6] and in one small series smoking illicit substances [7]. Other groups have shown that, in the absence of cART, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis offers some protection [1].

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