Chan et al. documented decreases in mitogen (PHA)-stimulated
IL-2 and IL-5 isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells following resistance exercise . We found plasma IL-5 significantly decreased at 90 min post exercise, and IL-2 was unchanged. These findings are puzzling, but may be explained in part by alterations in circulating cell numbers. IL-2 is secreted by T-Helper 1 (TH1) cells, IL-5 is secreted by T-Helper 2 (TH2) cells and Mast cells. Resistance exercise induces fluctuations in circulating immune cells, in P5091 order particular, a reduction of lymphocytes (including both TH1 and TH2) cells in the 30 min-6 h recovery period after exercise . Thus the modest reduction in plasma IL-5 may simply reflect fewer circulating TH2 SB-715992 cells at that time. Additionally,
 found only a mild inflammatory response in untrained subjects following resistance exercise (in a circuit fashion) solely on ten Universal cable machines; however, the subjects only performed 30 min of total exercise. Koch et al. suggested that the resistance exercise SAR302503 cell line protocol be longer in duration, so our current study increased the duration of the resistance exercise from their 15 min protocol to 42 min . As there are different types of muscle actions (i.e., isometric, isokinetic, concentric, eccentric), its been reported that exercises involving eccentric muscle contractions may induce greater muscular damage and thus a concomitant inflammatory response, which would include increased cytokine production . We addressed equal time for concentric and eccentric muscle actions by having the subjects perform the exercises with a 2:2 cadence.
Also, in our Monoiodotyrosine study, we utilized resistance-trained athletes who performed exercises designed to be similar to that used in more typical athletic regimens and recruit and activate a large amount of muscle tissue. Despite the fact that RE trained athletes participated in the present study utilizing a whole body RE protocol, we did not observe changes in IL-2 and therefore a benefit from CHO supplementation. Conclusions In conclusion, this was the first study to report salivary immune responses using paired-exercises during an acute resistance training session. The paired-exercise format increased the acute exercise session duration to over 40 min in order to elicit a greater stress and immune response. The results of the present study suggest that IL-5 decreases after RE, but s-IgA and IL-2 levels remain stable. Furthermore, the present data suggest that CHO supplementation prior to-, during or following RE did not appear to alter salivary or cytokine immune responses. These findings are important, because as previously reported in the literature, CHO supplementation may assist in reducing exercise-induced suppression of various aspects of the immune system.