chronic e posure was associated with persistence of particles into the the lungs lead Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ing to bronchioli wall thickening and airway remodel ing characterized by epithelial mucus producing cells metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth mus cle hypertrophy hyperplasia as observed in chronic asthma and COPD. Thus, mechanisms involved in airway remodelling might be the e cessive cell proliferation as well as the resistance to the apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death defined by spe cific morphological alterations but with only Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries slight ultra structure modifications of cytoplasmic organelles and phosphatidylserine residue e ternalization. It is noteworthy that mitochondrial alterations constitute the checkpoint of the apoptotic cell death.
This is high lighted by the mitochondrial Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries membrane permeabiliza tion which is measured by the decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and by the subsequent supero ide anion production and Cyto chrome c release. The activation of caspases or other proteases triggers the proteolysis of specific substrates involved into the final appearance of morphological fea tures of apoptosis. Most publications dealing with to i city of airborne particles showed an induction of apoptosis associated with ROS generation, ��m drop, caspase 9 activation and DNA fragmentation. In vitro e periments showed that PM induced apoptosis was reported in normal human lung tissue or airway epithelial cells. The to icity of ambient particles is mainly attributed to various adsorbed components.
For instance, organic compounds are known to mimic the apoptotic effect of PM in various cell types through pathways which require the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the generation of ROS leading to DNA damage. Nevertheless, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced apoptosis is mainly mediated via the mitochondria pathway in a p53 dependent Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Brefeldin_A manner. Metals also affect human health, especially when these to icants compete with essential elements and modify many cellular processes. Transition metals promote apoptosis through ROS generation, mitochondria dys function, activation of MAPK, p53 and caspases or down regulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl 2. Metals and the water soluble fractions of PM are known to cause inflammation and cancer mostly due to DNA damage as a consequence of ROS generation by Fenton reaction.
In addition, the e acerbation of asthma after inhalation of PM is mainly attributed to the biological compounds. Endoto ins induce proinflammatory cyto kines production and are able to provoke apopto sis like cell death involving a scavenger receptor. Most of PM pro apoptotic data selleck chemical Y-27632 were obtained in vitro from acute e posure which usually corresponds to high pollution periods. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of low doses of air particles, on different bron chial epithelial cells regarding their induction or reduction of apoptosis. First, we found that Parisian PM2.