Culture of rectal swabs was performed to screen patients for CPE carriage. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antibiotics by the agar disk this website diffusion method according to French guidelines (www.sfm.asso.fr). In carbapenem-resistant strains, carbapenemase production was detected using a set of phenotypic and genotypic methods: synergy
test between carbapenems and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or clavulanic acid, Hodge test, carbapenemase gene amplification (www.sfm.asso.fr). The follow-up of CPE events shows that 63 occurred between 2004 and 2011 (Figure 1), resulting in 107 cases of infections or colonizations. Fifty-three events did not lead to secondary cases whereas the 10 others led to outbreaks, with a total of 44 secondary cases (1–12 cases per outbreak). These events occurred in 20 of the 38 hospitals
of the AP-HP. Overall, among the 63 events, 55 (87%) involved patients with a link with a cross-border exchange: 43 were directly transferred from foreign hospitals, 4 had been hospitalized in foreign hospitals during the last 12 months, and 8 reported a recent stay (within 1 y) in a foreign country. For these 55 events, the countries where index cases had been hospitalized or had traveled were principally Greece (n = 19, 35%) and countries of North Africa (n = 22, 40%) (Table 1). Among these selleck products 55 events, the species involved were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 38), Escherichia coli (n = 15), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 3), and Citrobacter freundii (n = 1), two distinct species being involved in two events (Table 1). The carbapenemases involved in the 55 events were OXA-48 (n = 27, 49%), KPC (n = 19, 35%), NDM-1 (n = 4, 7%), and VIM (n = 5, 9%) (Table 1). Among the 22 events involving cross-border exchanges from North Africa, the species involved were mainly K. pneumoniae and E. coli, and the main enzyme was OXA-48 (Table 1). Among the 19 events involving cross-border exchanges from Greece, the species Paclitaxel in vivo involved were mainly K. pneumoniae (n = 16, 84%) and E. coli,
associated with KPC (n = 14, 74%), VIM, or OXA-48 (Table 1). For the subset of the 10 events that led to outbreaks, 6 were repatriated from foreign hospitals, 1 had been hospitalized in foreign hospitals in the last 12 months, and 1 reported a recent stay (within 1 y) in a foreign country. The main species was K. pneumoniae (n = 8) and the main enzyme was KPC (n = 6). In the 55 events linked with a cross-border exchange, the index patient was admitted mainly in intensive care units (n = 21, 38%), medicine (n = 22, 40%, including gastro-enterology n = 9, 16%), surgery (n = 11, 20%), and pediatric (n = 1, 2%) wards. The AP-HP program for controlling CPE events as well as the results obtained are described elsewhere.