Due to the strong correlation between the induction of an

Due to the strong correlation between the induction of an

efficient immune response to late-stage antigens and the control of latent Mtb infection, HspX may be an ideal candidate antigen for vaccines against latent tuberculosis. The addition of late-stage antigens such as HspX to the well-established prophylactic vaccines (Weinrich Olsen et al., 2001; Agger et al., 2006) might convert them into multistage tuberculosis vaccines that not only defend against all stages of Mtb infection, but also prevent reactivation of latent infections. For subunit vaccines, adjuvants are needed to increase the immunogenicity of the antigens. Aluminum hydroxide is widely used as one of two currently approved adjuvants (Gupta et al., 1995). The use of aluminum hydroxide in preclinical and clinical tests and its prevalent use in approved vaccines for millions of individuals show that aluminum hydroxide selleck is safe, well tolerated and capable of enhancing the immune response to a wide range of antigens (Singh et al., 2006). The mechanism of the aluminum reaction is largely

unknown; in addition to the depot effect theory (Gupta et al., 1995), the ability of aluminum salts to promote antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) (Sokolovska Smad inhibitor et al., 2007; Kool et al., 2008) have also been discussed. More recently, other theories about the mechanism of its adjuvant activity have been suggested. Kool et al. (2008) proposed that the cytotoxicity of aluminum salts leads to the release of uric acid in vivo, which acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern that is required for the adjuvant activity of aluminum. Other research has shown a requirement for caspase 1 activation in vivo, which is mediated by nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing gene (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), collectively known as the nlrp3 inflammasome (Eisenbarth et al., 2008). However, there is still much controversy concerning

these new proposals. CpG DNA is a novel adjuvant that contains unmethylated CpG motifs that are recognized by the innate immune system via TLR9 (Cornelie et al., 2004). The recognition by the innate immune system induces broad adjuvant effects Fluorometholone Acetate such as the direct activation of B cells, macrophages and DCs as well as the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 cytokines (Krieg et al., 1995; Askew et al., 2000; Cornelie et al., 2004). Although the immune reaction induced by CpG is nonspecific, it can be used to enhance the immune responses to specific antigens or to switch the immune response from Th2 to Th1. In vaccine trials for bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, CpG increased both the innate immune response and protective immunity (Davis et al., 1998; Decker et al., 2000; Deng et al., 2004).

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