efficiens strains DSM44547, DSM44547(pVWEx1) and DSM44547(pVWEx1-dld) was analysed in CgXII mineral medium containing 100 mM D-lactate and 1 mM IPTG. As expected , C. efficiens strains DSM44547 and DSM44547(pVWEx1) could not grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source (data not shown and Figure 4), while C. efficiens ATCC DSM44547(pVWEx1-dld) utilized D-lactate for biomass formation and grew with a growth rate of 0.08 h-1 (Figure 4). Thus, heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum enabled C. efficiens to utilize D-lactate as sole source of carbon and energy. Figure 3 Comparison of the genomic
context of dld in C. glutamicum ATCC13032 with the closely related C. glutamicum R and C. efficiens DSM44547. An insertion of twelve genes (including dld) is present only in the genome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. The regions flanking this genomic Wnt inhibitor island are homologous to those in C. Tipifarnib solubility dmso glutamicum R and C. efficiens. Direct repeats are located close to dld and are marked with boxes. The data were obtained from the open source bioinformatics tools CoryneRegNet  and PRODORIC Database . Figure 4 Growth of C. efficiens DSM44547 carrying either the empty vector pVWEx1 (squares) or the vector pVWEx1- dld (circles) in CgXII mineral medium containing 100 mM D-lactate and 1 mM IPTG. A representative growth curve is shown. The growth was monitored as OD600nm
(closed Fer-1 datasheet symbols); the concentration of D-lactate in the supernatant was measured by HPLC (open symbols). Discussion
In this study dld (cg1027) was demonstrated to encode the only D-lactate dehydrogenase essential for the growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source in C. glutamicum. Interleukin-3 receptor The dld inactivation mutant was unable to grow and to utilize D-lactate, unless dld was restored by plasmid-borne expression. The enzyme Dld is a quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52). Dld is specific for D-lactate reduction, while D-malate, L-malate, D-tartrate and L-tartrate were not significant substrates. The determined K m of 0.62 mM for D-lactate is similar to D-lactate dehydrogenase from Neisseria meningitidis (0.7 mM ) and E. coli (0.49 mM ). Dld accepts L-lactate and DL-2-hydroxybuytrate with minor activities confirming earlier observations obtained with strain DL4, a classically obtained mutant of C. glutamicum ATCC 14310 with increased D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and an increased rate of DL-hydroxybutyrate utilization . Unpublished data on D-lactate dehydrogenase from strain DL4 (Scheer et al. as referred to in Bott & Niebisch ) revealed a pH optimum of 7.0, a Km for D-lactate of 0.15 mM and Vmax 0.26 U per mg of solubilized protein. This protein preparation contained non-covalently bound FAD as it was confirmed here for Dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. As deduced from Dld of E. coli Dld of C.