Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) was calculated at significance levels of P < 0.05
and P < 0.01. As shown in Table 1, the mean values of DT, ST, and FQN were 2.7 min, 4.6 min, and 54.8 mm, respectively, and the mean values of PC, SV, and WGC were 13.2%, 30.3 mL, and 31.7%, respectively. As reflected by standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) CP-673451 mouse values, there were wide variations in the six quality traits among the wheat cultivars. In terms of CV value, the highest was ST (58.1%), followed by FQN (42.4%), DT (40.5%), SV (15.3%), WGC (10.1%), and PC (9.1%). This order indicated that the CV values of dough rheological properties were larger than those of flour qualities. As shown in Fig. 1, a normal distribution was found for PC, WGC, and SV of the wheat cultivars. However, DT, ST, and FQN were not normally distributed but showed marked BAY 73-4506 research buy left shifts. Z-statistics and significance levels based on the K–S normality test are listed in Table 2. The Z-statistics of PC, SV, and WGC were below the critical value (Z0.05 = 1.63), and their asymptomatic significance was larger than 0.05, indicating their normal distribution. However, the Z-statistics of DT, ST, and FQN were greater than the critical value, and their asymptomatic significances were ≤ 0.05, indicating that the rheological
properties were non-normally distributed. As shown in Table 3, PC was significantly (P < 0.05) positively correlated with DT. SV showed significant positive correlations with the three rheological properties (DT, ST, and FQN), with Pearson's correlation coefficients 0.45, 0.54, and 0.52, respectively. WGC was significantly negatively correlated with ST (P < 0.01) and FQN (P < 0.05). The dough rheological properties and flour quality of wheat cultivars released in different periods were evaluated to identify trends of genetic improvement. As shown in Fig. 2, DT of cultivars released in period IV was 3.3 min, which was 17.9% higher than that of cultivars
released in period I. Similarly, ST and FQN of cultivars released in period IV were 71.1% and 44.3% higher than those of cultivars released in period I. DT, ST, and FQN increased with time, showing that breeders have made marked improvements in dough rheological properties of wheat in China. However, PC, SV, and buy AZD9291 WGC did not show a consistent increase or decrease during different breeding periods (Fig. 3). The highest PC was observed in period II, whereas the highest SV was found in period IV. Because the dough rheological properties were non-normally distributed, the K–W test for non-parametric data was used to determine the significance of differences among the mean values (Table 2). The results showed that the flour quality characteristics could be divided into two categories on the basis of their significance levels (asymptotic significance < 0.05). The significance levels of DT, ST, and FQN were all below 0.05 (0.