Grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method is one of the compu

Grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method is one of the computational

image analysis methods commonly used today for quantification of cell and tissue structure. In our previous studies, we have indicated that this technique can successfully measure the level of cytoarchitectonics disorder within a lymphoid selleck kinase inhibitor tissue,[24] as well as structural changes in chromatin architecture in individual lymphocytes.[16] Other authors have recently applied the GLCM method in cell biology for evaluation of chromatin structure during programmed cell death (apoptosis),[25] as well as for textural analysis in radiology.[31, 32] The GLCM method has been introduced by Haralick et‚ÄČal. (1973) who established a set of textural features based on distribution of grey levels within pairs of image

resolution units. Some GLCM parameters might be sensitive in detection of fine chromatin structural changes during apoptosis (programmed cell death) when compared with conventional molecular biology/histology techniques such as Annexin-V labelling, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay, FACScan Sub G0/G1 peak etc.[16, 25] The lack of difference between the age groups in GLCM parameters may imply that GLCM detectable factors that affect nuclear chromatin, such as those present during apoptosis, are not present or have minimal impact during postnatal development of macula densa. However, further research is needed to confirm this assumption. In general, there are two classes of factors that contribute to tissue aging: extrinsic and intrinsic factors.[33] Extrinsic factors are LBH589 in vivo Mephenoxalone related to age-related changes in the tissue microenvironment, which include changes in intercellular communication or variations in biochemical mediator (i.e. interleukins) levels. Extrinsic factors tend to impair cytoarchitectural organization and may affect fractal/textural parameters of the tissue in general. On the other hand, intrinsic factors are limited to the individual cells,

or, more precisely, to their genome. In many cell populations, an important intrinsic factor that leads to cellular aging is DNA damage accumulation. In the kidney, DNA damage may occur as the result of the destructive effect of various nephrotoxic substances that come in contact with tubular system cells during life. Also, as in other cells in human organism, DNA damage may occur as the result of imperfections of DNA replication and repair mechanisms. Other important intrinsic factors that may influence cell aging are epigenetic chromatin alterations that take place on a larger scale than DNA damage accumulation.[33, 34] These epigenetic factors are closely related to changes in transcriptional activity of certain chromosomal regions (either up- or downregulating gene expression).

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