In other words, DNA molecules as n-dopants, shift the gate voltage SN-38 datasheet leftwards due to the fact that DNA molecules n-dopes the graphene layer . By introduction of DNAs as electron-rich molecules, the number of carriers would change in the graphene channel which has led in varying the conductance of source and drain [51–53]. SGFETs with high sensitivity is applied to detect the DNA hybridization based on the conductance variations. Finally, the hybridization event has been performed
by introducing complementary sequences which include the target sequence of the probe DNA immobilized graphene device . As illustrated in Figure 6, the electronic responses of the SGFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization are compared with experimental results of subsequent DNA hybridization eFT-508 cell line events . Fascinatingly, single-base mismatch combination is occurring with the introduction
of the non-complementary DNAs to the immobilized capture probe on SGFET device which results in no significant change in device characteristic which means conductance will be remained unchanged in this case. When the probe molecules expose to the target which is a mismatched DNA (non-complimentary) in this step, there is no bonding reaction between two pairs of DNA strands since they cannot hybrid because of the presence of mismatched base pair as illustrated in Figure 4. So there are no associated charges with the target molecule that can impose an obvious change to the applied gate voltage. It can also be seen that the SGFET device specifically 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase recognizes the target DNA sequences. In light of this fact, the focus of this paper is to present a new strategy for DNA sensor with the capability of detection of SNP. According to the optimized model of SGFET-based DNA sensor using PSO algorithm, by substituting α = 2.138e 10 F 2 + 8.9921e 9 F - 5.680e 3 in Equation 1, the current-voltage characteristic of DNA sensor for detection of probe (F = 1, 000 nM) is: (8) Figure 6 Immersing the device in mismatched DNA solution. (a) Conductance
versus gate voltage curves after incubation with probe and; (b) after immersing the device in mismatched DNA solution. By employing the abovementioned equation, the I d -V g characteristic of the optimized model is illustrated in Figure 5 and an acceptable agreement with the experimental data extracted from reference  is achieved. Figure 7 describes the I d - V g characteristic of the proposed model as well as the relevant experimental data for different concentrations of complementary DNA, where each diagram depicts specific concentration of the DNA molecules. Figure 7 The second step of hybridization detection concept. (a) Conductance versus gate voltage of the SGFETs device after immersing in different concentrations of complementary DNA solution. (b) Schematic of hybridization event and forming fully matched DNA.