In the absence of strong regulatory mechanisms, and given large monetary gains, these demands will be fulfilled, putting a
strain on wildlife populations. While levels of wildlife trade are rarely quantified and specified, it is clear that for many species groups from different areas huge volumes are traded annually (Li and Li 1998; van Dijk et al. 2000; Auliya 2003; Zhou and Jiang 2004, Schlaepfer et al. 2005; Engler and Parry-Jones 2007). Probably the species groups and individual taxa for which we have the most detailed data are the ones that are of conservation concern, but some arguable much better than others. Not only have these taxa received the attention from both government and non-government organizations monitoring JQEZ5 cost the extraction from the wild, trade in a significant number of them are regulated (and systematically recorded) through the Convention on International selleck Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), allowing retrospective assessments of realised levels of trade. While by their very nature rare animals and plants tend to be traded in smaller absolute numbers, especially when levels of trade are capped, from a conservation perspective it may be more meaningful to restrict the analysis of levels of
wildlife trade to conservation-dependent species or species groups. Presented here is an analysis of trade in a wide range of CITES-listed Janus kinase (JAK) animal groups (from butterflies and corals to reptiles and birds) with the ultimate aim of assessing the levels of extraction from the wild needed to supply the international demand in wildlife. An assessment is made of temporal changes in volumes, the mayor (official) exporters and importers for the different taxa are identified, and data on volumes bred under captive or controlled conditions is consolidated. It shows that for essentially for all taxa but butterflies
the majority of individuals in trade are derived from the wild and that apart from birds exports have either remained stable or have increased during the time period under investigation. Comparing these official data with scant data from illegal exports suggests that true levels of export are higher than reported, and that for selected taxa this will exceed sustainable levels of exploitation. Methods Study region Southeast Asia is here defined on a country-by-country basis, and includes Indonesia (including East Timor prior to gaining independence in 2002), Brunei, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam and China (excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region [SAR], Macau SAR, or Taiwan, Province of China [PoC]). Both Indonesia and China extend extensively beyond what is normally included in Southeast Asia.