In the present study, we also showed that after 28 days of heavy

In the present study, we also showed that after 28 days of heavy resistance training and supplementation NO underwent increases in myofibrillar protein of 70.39% that were significantly greater than the 26.34% increase in PL (p < 0.001), and that the increases for NO were significantly different than PL (p = 0.014). This is a similar pattern of response from longer-term studies where creatine supplementation, in conjunction with 12 wk of resistance training, resulted in a 57.92% increase in myofibrillar protein content when

compared to a maltodextrose placebo group, which only increased 11.62% [24]. In addition, 10 wk of heavy resistance training combined with a protein and amino acid supplement resulted in a 25.03% increase in myofibrillar protein compared to 10.54% for a carbohydrate placebo [34]. We have Nutlin-3a research buy demonstrated 28 days of heavy resistance training to increase serum IGF-1 by 9.34% Wortmannin and 8.58%, respectively for NO and PL; however, AZD0156 order there

was no difference between groups. Treating C2C12 myoblasts with creatine has been shown to increase the expression of the IGF-1 peptide [40]. A positive relationship has been reported between IGF-1 peptide and total DNA content in muscle during resistance exercise due to satellite cell proliferation stimulated by the locally produced IGF-1 [7]. However, while the IGF-I peptide expressed in skeletal muscleincreases muscular protein synthesis and stimulates differentiation of proliferating satellite cells [14, 41], it is unclear whether increases in hepatically-derived circulating IGF-1 has any direct effect on muscle hypertrophy. We have previously shown that 10 wk of heavy resistance training combined with a daily supplement containing whey/casein protein and free amino acids increased circulating IGF-1 levels, while also increasing muscle strength and mass [34]. Additionally, 16 wk of resistance training has been shown to increase circulating IGF-1 levels [42]. However, 12 wk of heavy resistance training has been shown to increase muscle strength and mass without any corresponding

increases in circulating IGF-1 [43]. Increases in muscle hypertrophy independent of increases in circulating IGF-1 can possibly be explained by a recent study using a liver IGF-1 deficient mouse model, which selleck kinase inhibitor involves a reduction in serum IGF-1 of approximately 80% [44]. After 16 wk of resistance training, the IGF-1-deficient mice and control mice exhibited equivalent gains in muscle strength, suggesting that performance and recovery in response to resistance training is normal even when there is a severe deficiency in circulating IGF-1. HGF is a growth factor bound to an extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle [45] that is capable of activating quiescent satellite cells [46]. Serum HGF levels have been shown to increase 24 hr following a single bout of eccentric exercise [47].

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