It may be more frequent in HIV-positive patients and those with a

It may be more frequent in HIV-positive patients and those with active viral hepatitis (see ‘Hepatotoxicity’), although the data are conflicting. As there are no definitive data from developed countries on whether giving chemo-preventative therapy to patients with a positive IGRA will reduce the risk of developing TB, the available large cohort data from Europe were examined to provide a basis for a pragmatic clinical approach to this problem and to calculate

the risk of developing active TB [193,194]. The risk of developing active TB vs. the risk of developing hepatitis on isoniazid prophylaxis was then used as the counterpoint to decide whether chemo-preventative therapy should be offered or not. A similar exercise has Selleck Enzalutamide been performed to help decide whether to give chemo-preventative therapy to patients starting anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, where the risk of

developing TB is balanced against the risk of isoniazid-induced hepatitis. In an HIV-infected individual with a positive IGRA, the risk of developing active TB, and therefore the need for chemo-preventative therapy, are based on (see Table 9 and Flow Chart 1): region of origin; HIV-positive patients at increased risk fall BYL719 solubility dmso into the following groups for countries of origin: sub-Saharan Africa – if duration of current antiretroviral therapy is <2 years, whatever the current blood CD4 cell count; Patients should be offered screening with IGRA if (and only if) they are in one of these groups heptaminol and would benefit from chemoprophylaxis [BII]. If the IGRA result is positive then we recommend the patient is given chemoprophylaxis. If the IGRA result is negative then no chemoprophylaxis is needed. If a patient is tested with an IGRA outside of these guidelines (not in one of the risk groups above), then no chemoprophylaxis is needed, even if the result is positive. These recommendations are based on extrapolation from

available data and further analyses are under way to refine this approach. If an IGRA test is indeterminate then we suggest repeating it and if still indeterminate the clinician should use clinical judgment regarding whether to give chemopreventative therapy or not. This Committee is aware that this new guidance will need local interpretation with regard to available resource, and that it should be subject to early audit. 2010 NICE guidance on IGRA testing suggests using IGRA testing in those patients with a CD4 count >200 cells/μL and both an IGRA and a tuberculin test in those with CD4 counts below this threshold. Although physicians can perform both tests in the severely immunosuppressed patients we believe that, as there are few data to support this strategy, doing this would add complexity, cost and difficulties in interpretation and we believe that an IGRA test alone would be sufficient at every CD4 cell count stratum. New data would be welcome in guiding physicians in this difficult area.

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