Its

Its ICG-001 prognostic significance is limited to the giant cell GBMs expressing two or more neuronal markers, these being associated with shorter survival. “
“X. B. Zhu, Y. B. Wang, O. Chen, D. Q. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, A. H. Cao, S. Y. Huang and R. P. Sun (2012) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology38, 602–616 Characterization of the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) in juvenile rats Aims: To identify the potential role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) with its C-C chemokine

receptor 5 (CCR5) in epileptogenic brain injury, we examined their expression in juvenile rat hippocampus and explored the potential link between MIP-1α, CCR5 and neuropathological alterations after status epilepticus (SE) induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) kainic acid (KA) injection. Methods: Based on the determination of the development of spontaneous seizures initiated by SE in developing rat brain, we firstly examined hippocampal neurone damage through Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining, and evaluated microglial reaction during the early phase following KA-induced SE in 21-day-old rats. MIP-1α and CCR5 protein were quantified by ELISA PD0325901 nmr and Western blot respectively following mRNA by real-time PCR. We also mapped MIP-1α and CCR5 expression in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and identified their cellular sources

using double-labelling immunofluorescence. Results: In juvenile rats, KA caused characteristic neurone damage in the hippocampal subfields, with accompanying microglial accumulation. In parallel with mRNA expression, MIP-1α protein in hippocampus was transiently increased after KA treatment, and peaked from 16 to 72 h. Double-labelling immunofluorescence revealed that MIP-1α was localized to microglia. Chloroambucil Up-regulated CCR5 remained prominent at 24 and 72 h and was mainly localized to activated microglia. Further immunohistochemistry revealed that MIP-1α and CCR5 expression were closely consistent with microglial accumulation in corresponding

hippocampal subfields undergoing degenerative changes. Conclusions: Our data indicated that MIP-1α as a regulator, linking with the CCR5 receptor, may be involved within the early stages of the epileptogenic process following SE by i.c.v. KA injection. “
“Diseases of, and insults to, the central nervous system (CNS) cause permanent deficits – the extent and nature of which varies as a function of the underlying disorder and the age at which it occurs. These disorders can simplistically be thought of as being either acute in nature such as stroke or head injury, or chronic as occurs in Parkinson’s or Huntington’s diseases (PD and HD respectively). In each case a population of cells are lost and the challenge is for the remainder of the CNS to cope with this and minimise the deficits that arise as a result of this damage.

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