J Pathol selleck chemicals 2008, 214:283–293.PubMedCrossRef 27. Deryugina EI, Quigley JP: Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2006, 25:9–34.PubMedCrossRef 28. Folkman J: Tumor angiogenesis and tissue factor. Nat Med 1996, 2:167–168.PubMedCrossRef 29. Hembrough TA, Swartz GM, Papathanassiu A, Vlasuk GP, Rote WE, Green SJ, Pribluda VS: Tissue factor/factor VIIa inhibitors block angiogenesis
and tumor growth through a nonhemostatic mechanism. Cancer Res 2003, 63:2997–3000.PubMed 30. Koomagi R, Volm M: Tissue-factor expression in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma measured by immunohistochemistry: correlation between tissue factor and angiogenesis. Int J Cancer 1998, 79:19–22.PubMedCrossRef 31. Yu JL, May L, Lhotak V, Shahrzad S, Shirasawa S, Weitz JI, Coomber BL, Mackman N, Rak JW: Oncogenic events regulate tissue factor expression in colorectal cancer cells: implications for tumor progression and angiogenesis. Blood 2005, 105:1734–1741.PubMedCrossRef 32. Versteeg HH, Spek CA, Peppelenbosch MP, Richel DJ: Tissue factor and cancer metastasis: the role of intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways. Mol Med 2004, 10:6–11.PubMedCrossRef 33. D’Andrea MR, Derian CK, Santulli RJ, Andrade-Gordon P: Differential expression of protease-activated receptors-1 and -2 in stromal fibroblasts KPT-8602 of normal, benign, and malignant human tissues. Am J Pathol 2001, 158:2031–2041.PubMedCrossRef 34. Dorsam RT, Gutkind JS:
G-protein-coupled receptors and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2007, 7:79–94.PubMedCrossRef 35. Widmann C, Gibson S, Jarpe MB, Johnson GL: Mitogen-activated
protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human. Physiol Acetophenone Rev 1999, 79:143–180.PubMed 36. Dudek H, Datta SR, Franke TF, Birnbaum MJ, Yao R, Cooper GM, Segal RA, Kaplan DR, Greenberg ME: Regulation of neuronal survival by the serine-threonine protein kinase AKT. Science 1997, 275:661–665.PubMedCrossRef 37. Shoji M, Sun A, Kisiel W, Lu YJ, Shim H, McCarey BE, Nichols C, Parker ET, Pohl J, Mosley CA, Alizadeh AR, Liotta DC, Snyder JP: Targeting tissue factor-expressing tumor angiogenesis and tumors with EF24 conjugated to factor VIIa. J Drug Target 2008, 16:185–197.PubMedCrossRef A-1155463 in vivo Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions XC and GQ have contributed to the research design, the data collection and manuscript writing. CW, WL, SW, ZN, XQ and WJ have contributed to manuscript writing. FN has contributed to the research design and manuscript writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant cancer stromal cells involved in the host immune system [1, 2]. In recent years, increasing attention has focused on TAMs, unique macrophage populations that play pivotal roles in tumor immunosuppression, and provide a suitable microenvironment for cancer development and progression.