More specifically, PACAP−/− mice at postnatal day 7 showed respir

More specifically, PACAP−/− mice at postnatal day 7 showed respiratory arrest in response to hypoxia. In contrast, their response to hypercapnic conditions was the same as that of wild-type mice. Histological and real-time PCR analyses indicated that the catecholaminergic system in the medulla oblongata was impaired

in PACAP−/− PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor mice, suggesting that endogenous PACAP affects respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata via its action on the catecholaminergic system. We propose that disruption of this system is involved in the SIDS-like phenotype of PACAP−/− mice. Thus, disorders of the catecholaminergic system involved with O2 sensing could be implicated in underlying neuronal mechanisms responsible for SIDS. “
“Local Drug GSK126 chemical structure Safety Unit, Medicine & Research Department, Berlin-Chemie AG, Berlin, Germany Stressful experiences do not only cause peripheral changes in stress hormone levels, but also affect central structures such as

the hippocampus, implicated in spatial orientation, stress evaluation, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that formation of memory traces is dependent on hippocampal gamma oscillations observed during alert behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep. Furthermore, during quiescent behaviour, sharp wave-ripple (SW-R) activity emerges. These events provide a temporal window during which reactivation of memory ensembles occur. We hypothesized that stress-responsive Molecular motor modulators, such as corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the

neurosteroid 3α, 21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC) are able to modulate gamma oscillations and SW-Rs. Using in vitro hippocampal slices, we studied acute and subacute (2 h) impact of these agents on gamma oscillations in area cornu ammonis 3 of the ventral hippocampus induced by acetylcholine (10 μm) combined with physostigmine (2 μm). CORT increased the gamma oscillations in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Likewise, CRF augmented gamma oscillations via CRF type 1 receptor. Lastly, THDOC was found to diminish cholinergic gamma oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Neither CORT, CRF nor THDOC modulated gamma power when pre-applied for 1 h, 2 h before the induction of gamma oscillations. Interestingly, stress-related neuromodulators had rather mild effects on spontaneous SW-R compared with their effects on gamma oscillations. These data suggest that the alteration of hippocampal gamma oscillation strength in vitro by stress-related agents is an acute process, permitting fast adaptation to new attention-requiring situations in vivo. “
“UCL Ear Institute, London, UK Many neurons in the central auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC) to the auditory cortex (AC), respond less strongly to a commonly occurring stimulus than one that rarely occurs.

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