On day 7, adherent cells were collected and used for the assays. Macrophages infected with bacilli at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 20 were incubated at 37 °C for 6 h. Extracellular bacilli were washed out three times and killed by 100 μg mL−1 amikacin treatment for 6 h. Interferon (IFN)-γ (final concentration
of 100 U mL−1) was added to some of the wells as a stimulator. Following incubation, cells were washed three times CH5424802 supplier and ruptured with 100 μL of sterile distilled water. To determine the number of intracellular live bacteria, the lysates were diluted and plated on 7H11 agar in triplicate. Colonies were counted after 3 weeks’ incubation. Bacilli (2 × 106 CFU) were incubated in 7H9 broth containing albumin, dextrose (without catalase) and 0–10 mM H2O2 I-BET-762 order for 6 h. In the same manner, bacilli were incubated in 7H9 broth supplemented with ADC (albumin, dextrose, catarase) and containing 0–10 mM NaNO2, as an NO donor, at pH 6.6, 6.0 or 5.5 for 3 days. Following incubation, bacilli were washed with 7H9 medium three
times, diluted and plated on 7H11 agar. Plates were incubated for 3 weeks and the percentage of live bacilli relative to control (0 mM H2O2 or NaNO2) was calculated. Bacterial log-phase cultures in Middlebrook 7H9 (BD) supplemented with 10% ADC (BD) were adjusted to an OD of 0.1 at 530 nm and mixed with 100-fold volume of various pH-adjusted broths (pH 3, 4, 5, 5.4, 5.7, 6.2, 6.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, adjusted with HCl or NaOH). Following incubation at 37 °C for 21 days, bacterial growth was evaluated by measuring OD at 530 nm. Each experiment was repeated three times. Statistically significant differences between two series were assessed by Student’s t-test or Aspin–Welch’s t-test following
an F-test assessment of variance. Eight different biochemical tests, nitrate reduction, niacin, catalase, SPTLC1 Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease, pyrazinamidase, PAS degradation and resistance to TCH, were applied to 14 substrains of BCG, BCG-Russia, -Moreau, -Japan, -Sweden, -Birkhaug, -Danish, -Glaxo, -Mexico, -Tice, -Connaught, -Montreal, -Phipps, -Australia and -Pasteur (Table 1). BCG-Birkhaug was positive for nitrate reduction whereas BCG-Mexico, -Australia and -Pasteur were negative; the other BCG strains were weakly positive, although M. bovis, the parental strain of BCG, was negative. The nitrate respiration system may be responsible for the survival of M. tuberculosis under anaerobic conditions (Sohaskey, 2008), and the nitrate reductase gene narGHJI contributes to the virulence of BCG in immunodeficient mice (Weber et al., 2000). BCG-Russia and -Japan survived better both in THP-1 and in mouse BMMs than other substrains (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Although host M. bovis was negative for nitrate reduction, the viability in host cells was higher than BCG (Table 1 and Fig. 1).
- Endothelial cell tubule formation assays Human microvascular endothelial cells h
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