0003   Feb-10 M10010138001A TST 10 JPXX01 0003   Apr-10 M10023515

0003   Feb-10 M10010138001A TST 10 JPXX01.0003   Apr-10 M10023515001A TST 10 JPXX01.0003   Oct-10 07E00173 TST 10 JPXX01.0018   Jan-07 08E00006 TST 10 JPXX01.0018   Dec-07 M09017753001A TST 10 JPXX01.0018   Jul-09 M10003149001A TST 10 JPXX01.0018   GSK126 Jan-10 M10006054001A TST 10 JPXX01.0098   Mar-10 07E00658 TST 10 JPXX01.0256   Apr-07 08E00457 TST 10 JPXX01.1011   Apr-08 M10018865001A TST 10 JPXX01.2731   Aug-10 07E00234 TST 11

JPXX01.0442   Feb-07 M10001003001A TST 11 JPXX01.0442   Jan-10 07E00290 TST 12 JPXX01.0022   Feb-07 07E00436 TST 12 JPXX01.0146   Mar-07 M09028540001A TST 12 JPXX01.0146   Oct-09 M10012000001A TST 12 JPXX01.0146   May-10 M11018826001A TST 12 JPXX01.0604   Jul-11 09E01310 TST 12 JPXX01.0925   May-09 08E02215 TST 12 JPXX01.1302   Nov-08 08E00255 TST 13 JPXX01.0001   Feb-08 M11021986001A TST 13 JPXX01.0081   Aug-11 09E00084 TST 13 JPXX01.0111   Dec-08 07E00868 TST 13 JPXX01.0206   Jun-07 07E00568 BGJ398 cell line TST 13 JPXX01.0642   Apr-07 07E00364 TST 13 JPXX01.1212   Jan-07 07E01042 TST 14 JPXX01.1393   Jun-07 07E01180 TST 15 JPXX01.0003   Jun-07 08E01211 TST 15 JPXX01.0003   Jul-08 M11004438001A

TST 15 JPXX01.0003   Jan-11 M11016520001A TST 15 JPXX01.0070   Jun-11 07E01365 TST 16 JPXX01.0928   Jul-07 08E00877 TST 17 JPXX01.0006   Jun-08 08E01423 TST 17 JPXX01.0006   Aug-08 07E02063 TST 17 JPXX01.0146   Oct-07 M09025088001A TST 17 JPXX01.0146   Oct-09 M11002975001A TST 17 JPXX01.0146   Jan-11 08E01686 TST 17 JPXX01.0416   Sep-08 07E02348 TST 18 JPXX01.0018   Nov-07 08E00618 TST 19 JPXX01.0146   May-08 M10000110001A TST 19 JPXX01.0146  

Jan-10 M10010755001A TST 19 JPXX01.0146   May-10 M11025544001A TST 19 JPXX01.0146   Sep-11 08E00074 TST 19 JPXX01.0557   Jan-08 M11011894001A TST 19 JPXX01.2900   Apr-11 M09018928001A TST 20 JPXX01.0001   Aug-09 08E00162 TST 20 JPXX01.0014   Feb-08 Adenosine 09E00747 TST 20 JPXX01.0014   Apr-09 M11029619001A TST 20 JPXX01.0014   Nov-11 M10026894001A TST 20 JPXX01.0146   Nov-10 08E00998 TST 21 JPXX01.0604   Jul-08 08E02429 TST 22 JPXX01.1396   Dec-08 09E00422 TST 23 JPXX01.1255   Feb-09 09E00632 TST 24 JPXX01.1975   Mar-09 09E00904 TST 25 JPXX01.2016   Apr-09 M09014919001A TST 26 JPXX01.0083   Jun-09 M09015997001A TST 27 JPXX01.0416   Jul-09 M09020496001A TST 28 JPXX01.0146   Aug-09 M09021700001A TST 29 JPXX01.0552   Sep-09 M10014370001A TST 30 JPXX01.0333   Jun-10 M10015309001A TST 31 JPXX01.0003   Jun-10 M10016817001A TST 32 JPXX01.0324   Jul-10 M10025067001A TST 33 JPXX01.0359   Oct-10 M10028492001A TST 34 JPXX01.0060   Dec-10 M11001607001A TST 35 JPXX01.0359   Jan-11 M11009301001A TST 36 JPXX01.1678   Mar-11 M11012744001A TST 37 JPXX01.0013   May-11 M11015184001A TST 38 JPXX01.1833   Jun-11 M11022803001A TST 39 JPXX01.0146   Sep-11 M10007760001A TST 40 JPXX01.2488   Apr-10 M11006620001A TST 41 JPXX01.1314   Feb-11 M11024498001A TST 42 JPXX01.0351   Oct-11 09E01078 TST 42 JPXX01.0781   May-09 07E00784 TST 56 JPXX01.0359   May-07 08E00321 TST 57 JPXX01.1301   Mar-08 M09031352001A TST 58 JPXX01.

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Nano Lett 2008, 8:4670–4674 10 1021/nl8026795CrossRef 9 Zhu GH,

Nano Lett 2008, 8:4670–4674. 10.1021/nl8026795CrossRef 9. Zhu GH, Lee H, Lan YC, Wang XW, Joshi G, Wang DZ, Yang J, Vashaee D, Guilbert H, Pillitteri A, Dresselhaus MS, Chen G, Ren ZF: Increased phonon scattering by nanograins and point defects Raf inhibitor in nanostructured silicon with a low concentration of germanium. Phys Rev Lett 2009, 102:196803–1-4. 10. Bux SK, Blair RG, Gogna PK, Lee H, Chen G, Dresselhaus MS, Kaner RB, Fleurial JP: Nanostructured bulk silicon as an effective thermoelectric material. Adv Funct Mater 2009, 19:2445–2452. 10.1002/adfm.200900250CrossRef 11. Ovsyannikov

SV, Shchennikov VV: Pressure-tuned colossal improvement of thermoelectric efficiency of PbTe. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90:122103–1-3.CrossRef 12. Ovsyannikov SV, Shchennikov VV, Vorontsov GV, Manakov AY, Likhacheva AY, Kulbachinski VA: Giant improvement of thermoelectric power factor of Bi(2)Te(3) under pressure. J Appl Phys 2008, 104:053713–1-5.CrossRef 13. Valiev RZ, Estrin Y, Horita Z, Langdon TG, Zehetbauer MJ, Zhu YT: Producing bulk ultrafine-grained materials by severe plastic deformation. JOM 2006, 58:33–39.CrossRef 14. Ikoma Y, Hayano K, Edalati K, Saito K, Guo QX, Horita Z: Phase transformation and

nanograin refinement of silicon by processing through high-pressure torsion. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101:121908–1-4.CrossRef 15. Ikoma Y, Hayano K, Edalati K, Saito K, Guo QX, Horita Z, Aoki T, Smith DJ: Fabrication of nanograined silicon by high-pressure torsion. J Mater Sci 2014. doi:10.1007/s10853–014–8520-z Acyl CoA dehydrogenase 16. Cahill DG: Analysis of heat flow in layered structures for time-domain thermoreflectance. Rev Sci Instrum 2004, Carfilzomib in vitro 75:5119–5122. 10.1063/1.1819431CrossRef 17. Carslaw HS, Jaeger JC: Conduction of Heat in Solids. 2nd edition. Oxford Oxfordshire New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press; 1986. 18. Fulkerso W, Moore JP, Williams RK, Graves RS, Mcelroy DL: Thermal conductivity electrical resistivity and seebeck coefficient of silicon from 100 to 1300°K. Phys Rev 1968, 167:765–782. 10.1103/PhysRev.167.765CrossRef 19. Hao Q, Zhu GH, Joshi G, Wang XW, Minnich A, Ren ZF, Chen G: Theoretical studies on the thermoelectric

figure of merit of nanograined bulk silicon. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:063109–1-3. 20. Stein N, Petermann N, Theissmann R, Schierning G, Schmechel R, Wiggers H: Artificially nanostructured n-type SiGe bulk thermoelectrics through plasma enhanced growth of alloy nanoparticles from the gas phase. J Mater Res 2011, 26:2459–2459. 10.1557/jmr.2011.311CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SH and MT together performed the thermal conductivity measurements and drafted the manuscript. YI and ZH prepared the silicon samples for thermal measurements. DGC supervised the data analysis and interpretation of the results. YT and MK conceived the idea and supervised the project.

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J Polym Res 2011, 18:659–665 CrossRef 10 Luo YL, Lu WB, Chang GH

J Polym Res 2011, 18:659–665.CrossRef 10. Luo YL, Lu WB, Chang GH, Liao F, Sun XP: One-step preparation of Ag nanoparticle–decorated coordination polymer nanobelts and their application for enzymeless H 2 O 2 detection. Electrochim Acta 2011, 56:8371–8374.CrossRef 11. Song Y, Wang L, Ren C, Zhu G, Li Z: A novel hydrogen peroxide sensor based on horseradish peroxidase immobilized in DNA films on a gold electrode. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2006, 114:1001–1006.CrossRef 12. Bui MPN, Pham XH, Han KN, Li CA, Kim YS, Seong GH: Electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide by silver

particles patterned on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2010, 150:436–441.CrossRef 13. Zhang B, Tang D, Liu B, Cui Y, Chen H, Chen G: Nanogold-functionalized magnetic beads with redox activity for sensitive electrochemical

immunoassay of DNA Damage inhibitor thyroid-stimulating hormone. Analy Chim Acta 2012, 711:17–23.CrossRef 14. Li NF, Lei T, Ouyang C, He YH, Liu Peptide 17 Y: An amperometric enzyme biosensor based on in situ electrosynthesized core–shell nanoparticles. Synt Met 2009, 159:1608–1611.CrossRef 15. Ates M, Saracs AS: Conducting polymer coated carbon surfaces and biosensor applications. Prog Org Coat 2009, 66:337–358.CrossRef 16. Zen JM, Li CL, Su Y, Lv XY, Xia HL, Shi HJ, Yang XG, Zhang JQ, Wang YJ: Controllable anchoring of gold nanoparticles to polypyrrole nanofibers by hydrogen bonding and their application in nonenzymatic glucose sensors. Biosens Bioelectr 2012, 38:402–406.CrossRef 17. Liu S, Wang L, Tian JQ, Luo YL, Zhang XX, Sun XP: Aniline as a dispersing and stabilizing agent for reduced graphene oxide

and its subsequent decoration with Ag nanoparticles for enzymeless hydrogen peroxide detection. J Coll Interf Sci 2011, 363:615–619.CrossRef 18. Abdiryim T, Jamal R, Nurulla I: Doping effect Fossariinae of organic sulphonic acids on the solid- state synthesized polyaniline. J Appl Polym Sci 2007, 105:576–582.CrossRef 19. Ubul A, Jamal R, Rahman A, Awut T, Nurulla I, Abdiryim T: Solid-state synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite. Synth Met 2011, 161:2097–2102.CrossRef 20. Huang LM, Wen TC, Gopalan A: Synthesis and characterization of soluble conducting poly(aniline-co-2, 5-dimethoxyaniline). Mater Lett 2003, 57:1765–1774.CrossRef 21. Salvatierra RV, Oliveira MM, Zarbin AJG: One-pot synthesis and processing of transparent, conducting, and freestanding carbon nanotubes/polyaniline composite films. Chem Mater 2010, 22:5222–5234.CrossRef 22. Sun X, Dong S, Wang E: Large scale, templateless, surfactantless route to rapid synthesis of uniform poly( o -phenylenediamine) nanobelts. Chem Commun 2004, 4:1182–1183.CrossRef 23. Mallick K, Witcomb MJ, Dinsmore A, Scurrell MS: Polymerization of aniline by auric acid: formation of gold decorated polyaniline nanoballs. Macromol Rapid Commun 2005, 26:232–235.CrossRef 24.

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(A) CV curves of the as-prepared samples

in 0 1 M HClO4so

(A) CV curves of the as-prepared samples

in 0.1 M HClO4solution at 50 mV s−1, curves a to d: MnO2/PANI fabricated in 1, 0.05, and 0.02 M HClO4, and 0.1 M NaOH, respectively. Curve e: 500°C-treated MnO2/PANI fabricated in 0.02 M HClO4. (B) Charge–discharge curves of the MnO2/PANI composite in 0.1 M HClO4 solution at different current densities. (C) First 20 cycles of charge–discharge curves for the MnO2/PANI composite at the current density of 1 mA cm−2 (D) Dependence of capacitance of the MnO2/PANI composite on the charge–discharge cycles at the current density of 1 mA cm−2. The charge–discharge curves of MnO2/PANI fabricated in 0.02 M HClO4 were measured at various current densities (shown in Figure 6B). The E-t plots show symmetry, which indicate the reversible charge–discharge Wnt inhibitor review process of the MnO2/PANI composite. The specific capacitance of the sample can be calculated via the equation: C CP  = i/|dE/dt|, where |dE/dt| is estimated from the slope of the discharging

curves. The capacitance of the composite at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.3, and 0.2 mA cm−2 Ibrutinib ic50 achieves 159, 161, 170, 174, and 168 F g−1, respectively. Additionally, the discrepancy of the largest composite capacitance values estimated from discharging and CV curves is lower than 20%, which suggests the high credibility of both techniques. The stabilities of the samples were tested with 100 CV scan cycles (Additional file 1: Figure S3). After 100 cycles, the CV curves of PANI change

Dolutegravir research buy obviously and the capacitances decreased largely (Additional file 1: Figure S3 A, B). However, with the increase of MnO2, the CV curves change a little and even no capacitance decrease is observed (as shown in Additional file 1: Figure S3 C,D,E). Compared with PANI samples obtained at higher acid concentration, MnO2/PANI nanocomposites possess noticeable capacitive stability. To investigate the long-term stability of as-prepared MnO2/PANI nanocomposites, the charge–discharge test of 1,000 cycles was conducted at 1 mA cm−2 in 0.1 M HClO4. As shown in Figure 6C (first 20 cycles are shown for clearly observation), the E-t plots are symmetric in shape and have almost no change during the long-term test. From Figure 6D, it can be seen that the discrepancy of capacitance of MnO2/PANI during 2,000-cycle test is lower than 5%, and there is no evident capacitance decrease after 1,000 cycles. The stability of the MnO2/PANI composite is thought due to the protection of the shield-surrounded PANI and uniform dispersion of MnO2 particles, whereby avoiding severe particles conglomeration involved in the charge–discharge process [35, 36]. The facile synthesis and ideal electrochemical capacitive performance will probably give the composites a promising prospect in the application of supercapacitors. Conclusions A series of samples including MnO2/PANI composites and PANI nanofibers were successfully synthesized by the facile interfacial polymerization.

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Nat Nanotechnol 2008,3(7):387–394 56 Rinzler AG, Liu J, Dai H,

Nat Nanotechnol 2008,3(7):387–394. 56. Rinzler AG, Liu J, Dai H, Nikolaev P, Huffman CB, Rodriguez-Macias FJ, Boul PJ, Lu AH, Heymann D, Colbert DT: Large-scale purification of single-wall carbon nanotubes: process, product, and characterization. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 1998,67(1):29–37. 57. Gu Z, Peng H, Hauge RH, Smalley RE, Margrave JL:

Cutting single-wall carbon nanotubes through fluorination. Nano Lett 2002,2(9):1009–1013. 58. Popov VN: Carbon nanotubes: properties and application. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 2004,43(3):61–102. 59. Baughman RH, Zakhidov AA, de Heer WA: Carbon nanotubes—the route toward applications. RAD001 concentration Science 2002,297(5582):787–792. 60. Terrones M: Science and technology of the twenty-first century: synthesis, properties, and applications of carbon nanotubes. Annu Rev Mater Res 2003,33(1):419–501. 61. Dai H, Wong EW, Lu YZ, Fan S, Lieber CM: Synthesis and characterization of carbide nanorods. Nature 1995,375(6534):769–772. 62. Ajayan PM, Zhou OZ: Applications of carbon nanotubes. In Carbon nanotubes. China: Springer; 2001:391–425. 63. de Heer WA: Nanotubes and the pursuit of applications. MRS Bull 2004,29(04):281–285. 64. Han W, Fan S, Li Q, Hu Y: Synthesis of gallium nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction. Science 1997,277(5330):1287–1289. 65. Ye

X, Lin Y, Wang C, Wai CM: Supercritical fluid fabrication of metal nanowires and nanorods templated by Adenosine multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Adv Mater 2003,15(4):316–319. 66. Bower C, Rosen R, Jin L, Han J, DAPT research buy Zhou O: Deformation of carbon nanotubes in nanotube—polymer composites. Appl Phys Lett 1999,74(22):3317–3319. 67. Wu HQ, Wei XW, Shao MW, Gu

JS: Synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods using carbon nanotubes as templates. J Cryst Growth 2004,265(1):184–189. 68. Calvert P: Nanotube composites: a recipe for strength. Nature 1999,399(6733):210–211. 69. Marquis FD: Fully integrated hybrid polymeric carbon nanotube composites. Trans Tech Publ 2003, 100:85–88. 70. Bian Z, Wang RJ, Wang WH, Zhang T, Inoue A: Carbon-nanotube-reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites and their properties. Adv Funct Mater 2004,14(1):55–63. 71. Flahaut E, Rul S, Laurent C, Peigney A: Carbon Nanotubes-Ceramic Composites. Ceramic Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology II 2004, 148:69–82. 72. Yanagi H, Kawai Y, Kita T, Fujii S, Hayashi Y, Magario A, Noguchi T: Carbon nanotube/aluminum composites as a novel field electron emitter. Jpn J Appl Phys 2006,45(7L):L650. 73. Baughman RH, Cui C, Zakhidov AA, Iqbal Z, Barisci JN, Spinks GM, Wallace GG, Mazzoldi A, De Rossi D, Rinzler AG: Carbon nanotube actuators. Science 1999,284(5418):1340–1344. 74. Niu C, Sichel EK, Hoch R, Moy D, Tennent H: High power electrochemical capacitors based on carbon nanotube electrodes. Appl Phys Lett 1997,70(11):1480–1482. 75. Dai H, Hafner JH, Rinzler AG, Colbert DT, Smalley RE: Nanotubes as nanoprobes in scanning probe microscopy.

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We tested the potential impact provided by deletion of the putati

We tested the potential impact provided by deletion of the putative tellurite resistance gene (tehB) included in vGI-19 on 316FNOR1960 phenotype. Tellurite is highly toxic to bacteria due to its action on DNA synthesis. It is an important mechanism by which animals combat intracellular microorganisms [27] and was used

in early studies as a tuberculosis/leprosy therapeutic [36]. Bacterial resistance to tellurite is inducible, is associated with virulence [28] and is linked to catalases which are required to process the superoxide anions generated as a result of bacterial metabolic mechanisms used to inactivate tellurite. We show a significantly see more increased sensitivity to tellurite in 316FNOR1960 whilst other 316 F SAHA HDAC ic50 strains either matched or exceeded the resistance of the two wildtype strains tested (K10:bovine, CAM87:caprine). Interestingly the strains most sensitive to tellurite were IIUK2000 and 2eUK2000 which lack the tehB gene. The metabolism of tellurite generates high reactive oxygen species which subsequently need to be de-toxified by catalase [37]. Significantly

the vGI-20 deletion in these strains includes loss of the catalase gene homologue MAP1725c. Both vaccine deletion regions thus involve alterations in metabolic pathways associated with deactivation of high reactive oxygen species toxicity, which suggests this may be an important mechanism underlying attenuation in these strains. Several of the other vaccine strains tested are also reported to have been maintained on markedly different media which may have similarly promoted or selected for genomic and phenotypic diversities. 316FNLD1978, available as a heat killed vaccination for dairy cattle since 1985 [38], was found to contain a large tandem duplication (vGI-22) unique to

this strain. It is notable that Protirelin this isolate was selectively subcultured on potato starch medium to enhance its growth (P. Willemsen personal communication) and now grows with difficulty on other media. It is tempting to speculate that the acquisition of extra copies of 14 ORFs including cell wall, fatty acid biosynthesis genes and two extra copies of IS900 are a direct result of the selective process performed on this strain. We demonstrated in this study that vaccine strain 316FUK2001 was clearly attenuated with respect to wild type MAP strain JD87/107. The vGI-19 deletion found in 316FNOR1960 and the vGI-20 deletion found in 2eUK2000 and IIUK2000 were not detected by PCR in this strain suggesting that attenuation in this strain is due to different genetic polymorphisms. A duplicated region (vGI-1b) was detected in vaccine strain 316FUK2000, which may possibly have arisen as an adaptation to growth on liquid Watson Reid media.

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First, the strategy to reduce in electrolyte thickness has been c

First, the strategy to reduce in electrolyte thickness has been carried out by many research groups [6–10]. Shim et al. demonstrated that a fuel cell employing a 40-nm-thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can generate a power density of 270 mW/cm2 at 350°C [11], while Kerman et al. demonstrated 1,037 mW/cm2 at 500°C from a 100-nm-thick YSZ-based fuel cell [12]. Another approach of minimizing ohmic loss is using electrolytes with higher ionic conductivities. Gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) has been considered as

a promising electrolyte material due to its excellent oxygen ion conductivity at low temperatures [13, 14]. However, the tendency of GDC being easily reduced at low oxygen partial pressures makes its usage as a fuel-cell electrolyte less attractive because ABT-263 in vivo the material will have a higher electronic conductivity as it is reduced. For this reason, many studies have been performed to prevent electronic

conduction through GDC film by placing an electron-blocking layer in the series [15–17]. Liu et al. demonstrated the electron-blocking effect of a 3-μm-thick YSZ layer in a thin-film fuel cell with a GDC/YSZ bilayered electrolyte [18]. If the GDC electrolyte thickness was reduced down to a few microns, another problem emerges, i.e., oxygen gas from the cathode side starts to permeate through the thin GDC electrolyte [13, 19]. For the reasons mentioned, the application of a protective layer is essential CHIR-99021 cost for GDC-based thin-film fuel cells. Recently, Myung et al. demonstrated that a thin-film fuel cell having a 100-nm-thick YSZ layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition onto a 1.4-μm-thick Idoxuridine GDC layer actually prevented both the reduction of ceria at low oxygen partial pressures and oxygen permeation across the GDC thin layer [20]. For the development of large-scale thin-film fuel cells, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template has been considered as their

substrate due to its high scalability potential. However, commercially available AAO templates have a considerably rough surface unlike silicon-based substrates, which have been used for conventional thin-film fuel cells. For this reason, atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was employed to deposit a highly conformal and dense YSZ layer to minimize uncontrolled pinholes and/or morphological irregularities. In this report, we demonstrate a prototypical, AAO-supported thin-film fuel cell with a bilayered electrolyte comprising a GDC film and a thin protective YSZ layer. The radio frequency (RF)-sputtered GDC layer with excellent oxygen ion conductivity is used as the primary electrolyte layer, while the YSZ layer deposited by ALD technique prevents the reduction of ceria at low oxygen partial pressure and oxygen permeation across the GDC thin layer.

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There is a single example of an “”IRREKO”" domain from a eukaryot

There is a single example of an “”IRREKO”" domain from a eukaryote and a single example from a virus. The eukaryote protein is TVAG_084780 from Trichomonas vaginalis G3 (Figure 1Q and Additional file 2, Figure S1). TVAG_084780 contains 10 LRRs. Two of the 10 repeats are clearly “”IRREKO”" domains.

KU-57788 nmr The virus protein is MSV251 from Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus [Q9YVJ1]. This protein contains 11 LRRs with the consensus of LkyLdCsNNxLxnLxiN(n/d)n (Additional file 1, Table 1). The repeating unit length is 19 residues and thus shorter than that of typical “”IRREKO”" LRR. Two subtypes of [email protected] domains [email protected] that are 21 residues long may be classified into two subtypes (Figure 1). The first subtype has the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxLxxLDLxx(N/L/Q/x)xx, while the second has the consensus of LxxLxCxxNxLxxLDLxx(N/L/x)xx, where “”L”" is

Leu, Val, Ile, Phe, Met or Ala, “”N “” is Asn, Thr or Ser, “”D”" is Asp or Asn, “”Q”" is Gln, and “”x”" is nonconserved residues. As well as the other seven classes, “”x”" is generally hydrophilic or neutral residues (Figure 1 and Additional files 1 and 2: Table 1 and Figure S1, respectively). In these two subgroups, “”L”" at positions 1, 4, 14 and 16 is predominantly Leu, while “”L”" or “”C”" at position 6 is not only Leu or Cys but also Val or Ile, and frequently Ala and Phe. “”N”" at position 9 is predominantly Asn and often Thr, Ser or Cys. “”D”" at position 15 is check details predominantly occupied by Asp and frequently SDHB by Asn. Position 19 is often occupied by Leu, Asn, or Gln. Some [email protected] proteins such as Listeria internalin-J homologs and four Bacteroides proteins include LRRs in which the HCS part consists of a twelve residue stretch, LxxLxLxx(N/C)xxL As LRRs with 20

or 22 residues sometimes keep the most conserved segments of Lx(L/C) in both HCS and VS parts, we regard those as [email protected] [email protected] domains that mainly consist of the first subtype are observed in 61 proteins (Additional file 1, Table 1). Some proteins have the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxLxxLDLxxNxx. These include BIFLAC_05879 and BLA_0865 from Bifidobacterium animalis, A1Q_3393, VAS14_09189, VAS14_14509, and CPS_2313 from Vibrio species, SwooDRAFT_0647, SwooDRAFT_0647, and Shal_3481 from Shewanella species, and SKA34_06710 and SKA34_09358 from Photobacterium sp. SKA34 (Figures 1B, C and 1D, and Additional file 2, Figure S1). Also, the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxLxxLDLxxLxx is observed in a few proteins including SCB49_09905 from unidentified eubacterium SCB49 (Figure 1E). The pattern of LxxLxLxxNxLxxLDLxxQxx is observed in only CPS_3882 from Vibrio psychroerythus (Figure 1F).

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Several studies have been shown that leaf extracts are responsibl

Several studies have been shown that leaf extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver ions for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The absorption peak at 1,636 cm-1 is close to that reported for native proteins [36] which suggest that proteins are interacting with biosynthesized nanoparticles. It is well-known that proteins can bind to gold nanoparticles either through free amine groups or cysteine residues in the proteins [37]. A similar mechanism could be possible, the leaf extract from A. cobbe cap the silver nanoparticles, thereby stabilizing them. Similar FTIR pattern was also observed for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Geranium leaf extract [38], selleck chemical Ocimum sanctum leaf extract [6, 26, 39]. Figure 3 FTIR

spectra of A. cobbe leaf broth (A), silver nanoparticles synthesized by A. cobbe leaf broth (B). XPS analysis of AgNPs X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to investigate the chemical state of the leaf extract-mediated synthesis of AgNPs. The quantitative Ag/C atomic ratios of the samples RGFP966 were determined using the peak area ratio of the corresponding XPS core levels and the sensitivity factor (SF) of each element in XPS. Figure 4 shows high-resolution XPS

spectra of the C(1 s) core level for the AgNPs. The binding energies of Ag(3d5/2) and Ag(3d3/2) peaks were found at binding energies of 368.0 and 374.0 eV, respectively. To further understand the chemical state of the AgNPs on the surface, a detailed deconvolution of the Ag(3d) peak was also performed. The binding energy of the Ag(3d5/2) core level for Ag, Ag2O, and AgO is 368.5, 368.3, and 367.7 eV, respectively. Based on the Ag(3d5/2) peak analysis, we have found that about

93% of the silver atoms on the surface were in the Ag0 (metallic) state, while only about 1% and 6% of the silver atoms were in the Ag+ and Ag2+ chemical states, respectively. These values are in good agreement with published values for AgNPs. Figure 4 XPS analysis of AgNPs. Particle size distribution analysis of AgNPs TEM images are captured under high vacuum conditions with a dry sample; Thymidylate synthase before analysis of AgNPs using TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out to determine particle size in aqueous solutions using DLS. The characterization of nanoparticles in solution is essential before assessing the in vitro toxicity [40]. Particle size, size distribution, particle morphology, particle composition, surface area, surface chemistry, and particle reactivity in solution are important factors in assessing nanoparticle toxicity [40]. DLS is a valuable technique to evaluate particle size, and size distribution of nanomaterials in solution. In the present study, DLS was used, in conjunction with TEM, to evaluate the size distribution of AgNPs. The AgNPs showed with an average size of 5 nm, which exactly matches with TEM observation (Figure 5). The DLS pattern revealed that leaf extract-mediated synthesized AgNPs showed with an average size of 5 ± 4 nm. Singhal et al.

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d- Different biovars give different results, nr- not reported **

d- Different biovars give different results, nr- not reported. **As determined in this study. Genomic comparison Comparisons of proteins predicted for isolate 4A and T. phagedenis F0421, whose sequence was obtained from the human microbiome project, made using the RAST server showed a high degree of similarity. At the amino acid level, approximately 86% of the proteins predicted for T. phagedenis F0421 demonstrated >95% identity to proteins encoded by genes identified in isolate 4A. Over 50% of the encoded proteins examined demonstrate >99.5% identity (data not shown).

Results from comparisons made using Genome-To-Genome Distance Calculator (GGDC) appear in Table 4. Comparison of genomic contigs from isolate 4A and Treponema phagedenis F0421 selleck using either BLAT or BLAST analysis indicate that isolate 4A is BAY 57-1293 concentration >70% similar to F0421 and should not be considered a new species. These comparisons along with the global RAST comparison (4A to F0421) are in agreement that the two isolates are highly similar and should most likely be treated as the same species.

Results further indicate that isolate 4A is <70% similar to other fully sequenced Treponema species available in Genbank, including T. succinifaciens, T. azotonutricium, T. primita, T. brennaborense, T. denticola, T. paraluiscuniculi, and T. pallidum. Table 4 Comparison of Isolate 4A to other treponemes using Genome-To-Genome Distance Calculator ( http://​ggdc.​gbdp.​org/​ )

Reference Sequence† Comparison Program DDH% estimate** Treponema phagedenis Fenbendazole F0421* 2.83 Mb, AEFH00000000.1 BLAT 82.11 Treponema phagedenis F0421* 2.83 Mb, AEFH00000000.1 NCBI-BLAST 84.59 Treponema succinifaciens DSM 2489 “” 52.5 Complete chromosome, 2.73 Mb, NC_015385.1 Treponema azotonutricium ZAS 9 “” 47.15 Complete chromosome, 3.85 Mb, NC_015577.1 Treponema primitia ZAS 2 “” 45.7 Complete chromosome, 4.05 Mb, NC_015578.1 Treponema brennaborense DSM 12 “” 35.64 Complete chromosome, 3.05 Mb, NC_015500.1 Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 “” 29.34 Complete chromosome, 2.84 Mb, NC_002967.9 Treponema paraluiscuniculi Cuniculi A “” 25.82 Complete chromosome, 1.13 Mb, NC_015714.1 Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum SS14 “” 25.75 Complete chromosome, 1.14 Mb, NC_010741.1 †All comparisons used 60 Contigs assembled for Isolate 4A as Query and report results using Formula 2 (Identities/HSP length). **Regression based. DNA-DNA Hybridization (DDH%) estimates ≤70% indicate organisms compared represent different species. Estimates >70% indicate organisms represent same species. *277 Contigs for Treponema phagedenis F0412 were used as reference sequence. Discussion Treponema spirochetes have been found in many species of animals in close association with their host, with distinct species colonizing genitalia, gastrointestinal tracts and oral cavity. Treponema spirochetes can co-exist as harmless commensals (e.g., T. refringens, T.

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