(b) Enhancement ratios of Mg and H concentrations by the MSE tech

(b) Enhancement ratios of Mg and H concentrations by the MSE technique as a function of Al content compared with that of the conventional method. High Mg doping was reported to result in Mg-rich precipitates. The primary Mg-rich precipitates were presumed to be Mg3N2[27, 28], which can be formed when Mg do not incorporate as acceptors in the desired substitutional sites. The learn more substitutional Mg was suggested to be usually passivated by H during growth, and the corresponding Mg acceptor can be activated by postgrowth thermal annealing to dissociate the Mg - H complex [29]. The correlation between

the substitutional Mg and H was verified by previous theoretical and experimental investigations [30, 31]. Thus, the H concentration is most likely associated with C Mg if Mg is effectively incorporated in the desired substitutional sites. The enhancement ratios of H concentration for the MSE technique increase from 1.2 to 10 with increasing Al content, compared with that of the conventional method, as shown in Figure 4b. This simultaneous enhancement in H concentration demonstrates that the Mg was effectively incorporated in the desired substitutional sites

by the MSE technique. In this work, the high C Mg is the important basis for improving the hole concentration in p-type AlGaN epilayer. Besides the solubility limit, the high activation energy of Mg acceptors is another contribution for the low p-type doping of Al x buy GW786034 Ga1 – x N, leading to a low acceptor activation probability [5, 8]. In order to increase the overall p-type doping, more efforts on activating the obtained high C Mg will be included in future progress. Conclusions The MSE technique, which utilizes

periodical interruptions under an extremely N-rich atmosphere, was proposed to enhance Mg incorporation, base on the first-principles total energy calculations. During the interruption, metal flows were closed to produce an ultimate V/III ratio condition without affecting Mirabegron the AlGaN growth. By optimizing the interruption conditions, we obtained a high concentration and uniform distribution Mg in the AlGaN epilayer. The C Mg enhancements increase with increasing Al content through this method. Particularly, for the Al0.99Ga0.01N, the enhancement ratio can be achieved up to about 5 and the final Mg concentration was determined to be 5 × 1019 cm–3. Selleckchem NCT-501 Meanwhile, the simultaneous increase of the H concentration confirms the Mg effective incorporation in the desired substitutional sites instead of forming Mg3N2. The proposed approach, which is convenient as well as effective, could be used as a general strategy to promote dopant incorporation in wide bandgap semiconductors with stringent dopant solubility limits.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Results and discussion Before the fabrication of metal/n-GaN cont

Results and discussion Before the fabrication of metal/n-GaN contacts, structural and morphological characterizations

of epitaxial layers have been Selleckchem Enzalutamide done. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the GaN epitaxial layer using Cu-Kα radiation is shown below in Figure 2a. The X-ray diffraction pattern was taken in bulk mode. The orientation of the epitaxial layer was observed to be along the (002) which confirms the growth of the epitaxial layer along the [0001] direction having a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. Additional diffraction peaks from (102), (004), and (203) reflection planes of hexagonal GaN were also observed. The sharp diffraction peaks (FWHM value 432 arc sec for (002)) reveal the reasonably good crystalline quality of the GaN epitaxial layer [13]. The lattice constants ‘a’ and ‘c’ were found to be 0.320 and 0.518 nm, respectively, which matched well with the standard cell parameter values as given in JCPDS card 02–1078. GaN epitaxial layers were also examined under an atomic force

microscope (AFM) in the contact mode to measure the topography of the surface. Figure 2b shows the AFM images in a 2D view for the pristine samples. The surface area scanned was 10 × 10 μm2. The RMS roughness of the surfaces is around 1 nm for all samples. The result of the AFM measurement shows an overall smooth GaN surfaces. These samples have an average dislocation density value of about 5 × 108 cm-2, which is acceptable for GaN epilayers but poor as compared to Si and GaAs epilayers. selleck Figure 2 X-ray diffraction spectrum (a) and AFM image (b) of the GaN epitaxial layer. The asterisk ‘*’ indicates peaks from sapphire substrate. Electrical characterization of Schottky barrier devices was carried out in the temperature

range of 100 to Tacrolimus (FK506) 340 K measured at a temperature interval of 40 K. Figure 3 shows the experimental semilog forward and reverse bias I-V characteristics of the Pt/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBD). It should be mentioned here that for analysis, we have used diodes with 384-μm diameter and have find more almost identical electrical properties. The characteristics shown here demonstrate an average trend which was determined for a group of diodes. The current–voltage characteristics of SBD are given by the thermionic emission theory [14, 15]. For bias voltage V ≥ 3kT/q, the conventional diode equation is (1) (2) Figure 3 Semilog forward and reverse I-V characteristics for Pt/n-GaN Schottky diode at 100 to 340 K. Here, A** is the effective Richardson constant, ϕ ap is the apparent or measured barrier height, n is the ideality parameter, A is the diode area, and the other symbols have their usual meanings. Since image force is a very weak function of applied voltage, it could also be neglected [14–18].

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

210 0 688 1 03 (0 90–1 18)  rs2804916a T>C 0 170/0 166 0 157/0 16

210 0.688 1.03 (0.90–1.18)  rs2804916a T>C 0.170/0.166 0.157/0.163 0.921 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.138/0.135 0.971 0.997 (0.86–1.16)  rs2804918a A>G 0.345/0.357 0.352/0.333 0.847 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 0.318/0.321 0.896 1.01 (0.90–1.13)  rs9370232a G>C 0.361/0.370 0.358/0.362 0.640 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 0.357/0.346 0.797 0.99 (0.88–1.10)  rs4712047a G>A 0.494/0.477 0.448/0.505

0.221 0.93 (0.82–1.05) 0.456/0.457 0.269 0.94 (0.84–1.05)  rs3734674 G>A 0.158/0.171 0.191/0.149 0.252 1.10 (0.93–1.29) 0.176/0.188 0.416 1.06 (0.92–1.23)  rs11751539a A>T 0.309/0.320 0.302/0.312 0.476 0.95 (0.84–1.09) 0.315/0.276 0.955 0.997 (0.87–1.12)  rs3757261a G>A 0.155/0.165 0.184/0.139 0.159 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 0.168/0.174 0.252 1.09 (0.94–1.26)  rs2253217a A>G 0.063/0.071 0.056/0.068 0.210 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 0.045/0.061 0.111 0.83 (0.67–1.04) Haplotype

 Block 1   GT 0.641/0.637 0.629/0.645 0.666 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 0.665/0.655 0.796 0.99 ATM Kinase Inhibitor order (0.88–1.10)   TT 0.189/0.196 0.215/0.192 0.519 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 0.198/0.210 0.711 1.03 (0.90–1.17)   GC 0.171/0.167 0.156/0.163 0.086 0.87 (0.74–1.02) 0.137/0.135 0.949 0.995 (0.86–1.15)  Block 2   GAGA 0.471/0.442 0.446/0.478 0.904 0.99 (0.88–1.12) 0.468/0.491 0.674 0.98 (0.88–1.09)   GTGA 0.311/0.320 0.313/0.312 0.758 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 0.313/0.272 0.734 1.02 (0.91–1.14)   AAAA 0.154/0.166 0.184/0.139 0.150 1.12 (0.96–1.32) 0.169/0.174 0.239 1.09 (0.94–1.26)   GAGG 0.061/0.067 0.054/0.061 0.353 0.89 (0.70–1.14) 0.042/0.050 0.280 0.88 (0.70–1.11) Block 1; rs9382227, rs2804916 Block 2; rs3734674, rs11751539, rs3757261, rs2253217, rs2841514 aTag SNPs Table 6 Gilteritinib cell line association between SNPs in SIRT6 and diabetic nephropathy   Caspase inhibitor Allele frequencies (nephropathy case−control) Proteinuria ESRD Combined Study 1 Study 2 P OR (95% CI) Study 3 P OR (95% CI) SNP  rs350852a T>C 0.313/0.338 0.313/0.303 0.545 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 0.324/0.348 0.367 0.95 (0.84–1.06)  rs7246235a T>G 0.185/0.186 0.168/0.209 0.110 0.88 (0.75–1.03) find more 0.202/0.164

0.447 0.95 (0.82–1.09)  rs107251a C>T 0.296/0.315 0.305/0.291 0.841 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.323/0.328 0.799 0.98 (0.88–1.11)  rs350844 G>A 0.304/0.322 0.309/0.291 0.936 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.336/0.347 0.819 0.99 (0.88–1.11) Haplotype  Block 1   TCG 0.516/0.499 0.529/0.500 0.122 1.10 (0.98–1.24) 0.517/0.532 0.342 1.05 (0.95–1.17)   TTA 0.299/0.318 0.303/0.291 0.776 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.360/0.342 0.713 0.98 (0.87–1.10)   GCG 0.185/0.183 0.168/0.209 0.100 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.067/0.052 0.433 0.95 (0.83–1.09) Block 1; rs7246235, rs107251, rs350844 aTag SNPs Table 7 Replication study for the association between SNPs in SIRT1 and diabetic nephropathy   Allele frequencies (nephropathy case−control) Proteinuria (study 1, 2, 4) Proteinuria + ESRD (study 1, 2, 3, 4) Study 4 P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) SNP  rs12778366a T>C 0.089/0.131 0.676 0.96 (0.81–1.15) 0.448 0.94 (0.80–1.10)  rs3740051a A>G 0.311/0.291 0.226 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 0.106 1.09 (0.98–1.22)  rs2236318a T>A 0.113/0.116 0.350 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.257 0.91 (0.78–1.07)  rs2236319 A>G 0.360/0.344 0.142 1.09 (0.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Biodivers Conserv 15:2497–2513CrossRef Green EP, Shirley F (1999)

Biodivers Conserv 15:2497–2513CrossRef Green EP, Shirley F (1999) The global trade in corals. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge Grey M, Blais AM, Vincent ACJ (2005) Magnitude and trends of marine fish curio imports to the USA. Oryx 39:413–420CrossRef Grieser-Johns A, Thomson J (2005) Going, going, gone: the illegal trade in wildlife in East and Southeast Asia.

World Bank, Washington, DC Karesh WB, Cook RA, Gilbert M, Newcomb J (2007) Implications of wildlife trade on the movement of avian influenza selleck and other infectious diseases. J Wildl Dis 43:55–59 Lee RJ, Gorog AJ, Dwiyahreni A et al (2005) Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: a case study from North Sulawesi. Biol Conserv 123:477–488CrossRef Li Y, Li D (1998) The dynamics of trade in live wildlife across selleck screening library the Guangxi border between China and Vietnam during 1993–1996 and its control strategies. Biodivers Conserv 7:895–914CrossRef

Liou C (2007) The state of wildlife trade in China. TRAFFIC East Asia, China, Beijing McNeely JA, Kapoor-Vijay P, Zhi L et al (2009) Conservation biology in Asia: the major Stattic concentration policy challenges. Conserv Biol 23:805–810CrossRefPubMed Nekaris KAI, Nijman V (2007) CITES proposal highlights rarity of Asian nocturnal primates (Lorisidae: Nycticebus). Folia Primatol 78(3):211–214CrossRefPubMed New TR, Collins NM (1991) Swallowtail butterflies: an action plan for their conservation. IUCN, Gland Ng PKL, Tan HH (1997) Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues. J Aquarium Sci Conserv 1:79–90CrossRef Nijman V (2006) In situ and ex-situ status of the Javan gibbon and the role of zoos in conservation of the species. Contrib Zool 75(3–4):161–168 Nijman V (2009) An assessment of the trade in gibbons Erastin nmr and orang-utans on Sumatra, Indonesia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur Nijman V, Shepherd CR (2007) Trade in non-native, CITES-listed, wildlife in Asia, as exemplified by the trade in freshwater turtles

and tortoises (Chelonidae) in Thailand. Contrib Zool 76(3):207–211 Nijman V, Shepherd CR (2009) Wildlife trade from ASEAN to the EU: issues with the trade in captive-bred reptiles from Indonesia. TRAFFIC Europe, Brussels Nijman V, Shepherd CR, Mumpuni, Sanders K (2009) Over-exploitation and illegal trade of reptiles in Indonesia. Appl Herpetol 6(4): in press Nooren H, Claridge G (2001) Wildlife trade in Laos: the end of the game. Netherlands Committee for IUCN, Amsterdam Pantel S, Chin SY (2009) Proceedings of the workshop on trade and conservation of pangolins native to South and Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur Roberton SI, Bell DJ, Smith GLD et al (2006) Avian influenza H5N1 in viverrids: implications for wildlife health and conservation. Proc R Soc B 273:1729–1732CrossRefPubMed Roe D (2006) Blanket bans—conservation or imperialism? A response to Cooney & Jepson.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

The antibiotics tested were amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, ceftaz

The antibiotics tested were amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, fosfomycin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and tobramycin. For the isolates resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem, the determination of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) using E-test strips with Imipenem-EDTA was performed (bioMérieux, Marcy d’Etoile, France). The classification of multiresistance was performed according to Magiorakos et al. [11].

The isolates were classified according to the resistance pattern as multidrug resistant (MDR, non-susceptible to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories), extensively drug resistant (XDR, non-susceptible to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories; i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories), pandrug-resistant (PDR, non-susceptible NF-��B inhibitor to all agents in all antimicrobial

categories), and non-multidrug resistant (non-MDR). DNA extraction: PCR amplification and DNA sequencing Bacterial genomic DNA for PCR amplification was obtained as previously described [12]. The housekeeping genes acsA, aroE, guaA, mutL, nuoD, ppsA and trpE were amplified and sequenced for the 56 isolates using the primers described previously [8]. The PCR conditions have been slightly modified. The reactions were performed using an Eppendorf thermocycler, with an initial denaturation step at 96°C 2 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 96°C for 1 min for all of selleck kinase inhibitor the genes, a primer annealing temperature, depending on the gene (55–58°C for aroE and nuoD; 58°C for acsA and guaA; and 58–60°C for mutL, ppsA and trpE), for 1 min and a primer extension at 72°C for 1 min for all of the genes, with

the exception of aroE (1.5 min). A final elongation step was performed Etofibrate at 72°C for 10 min. The PCR amplification reactions were performed as previously described [12]. The amplified products were purified with Multiscreen HTS PCR 96-well filter plates (Millipore). Sequence reactions were carried out using the ABI Prism BigDye Terminator BAY 1895344 in vivo version 3.1 and the sequences were read with an automatic sequence analyser (3130 genetic analyzer; Applied Biosystems). Sequence analysis and allele and nucleotide diversity Sequence analysis was performed as described previously [12]. Individual phylogenetic trees and concatenated analyses of the sequenced gene fragments were constructed [12]. The allelic and nucleotide diversities were calculated from the gene sequences using the DnaSP package, version 3.51 [13]. For each isolate, the combination of alleles obtained at each locus defined its allelic profile or sequence type (ST). The ST and allele assignment were performed at the P. aeruginosa MLST website (http://​pubmlst.​org/​paeruginosa/​). If a sequence did not match with an existing locus in the database, it was designated as a “new” allele.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

For vz0500, both IC50 and MIC values were about equal For compou

For vz0500, both IC50 and MIC values were about equal. For compound 1541–0004 the IC50 value for cytotoxicity was approximately 27-times higher than the MIC value. Although the identified compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities at low concentrations, the toxicities render them unsuitable for direct clinical application. Thus, the compounds may serve as pharmaceutical leads and modifications via the methods of medicinal chemistry may lead to better properties. The elucidation of the mode of action of new antimicrobials can be a tedious and time consuming effort and can require the application of a variety of biochemical and molecular

methods [17, 18]. Due to the advances LDN-193189 in genome sequencing instrumentation and methodology, an innovative new option has become available recently. It employs genomic PCI-32765 ic50 sequence comparison of resistant mutants with wild type strains and has been successfully applied for target identification in a limited number of previous investigations

by other researchers [13]. As we have used NM06-058 for the evaluation of the active compounds, we have used the same strain to create resistant mutants against vz0825. The V. cholerae strain NM06-058 was isolated from hospitalized diarrhea cases during 2006 at Kolkata, AS1842856 clinical trial India. This strain along with other V. cholerae strains isolated during 2006 was studied for the expression of cholera toxin (CT) and it was identified that NM06-058 is capable of producing a higher amount of CT in vitro compared to other strains and to reference V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain N16961. Based on the high virulence expression, this strain was selected for our investigations. Clinical V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at Kolkata during and after 1995 belonged to altered El Tor biotypes [19]. Thus it can be considered that strain NM06-058 represents the altered V. cholerae El Tor biotype, which is still the prevailing type

among cholera cases. The generation of mutants that were resistant against vz0825 was straightforward Benzatropine in this study by plating the wild type strain on agar plates containing the active compound at 5-times the MIC value of the wild type. The successful generation of resistant mutants with only one passage indicates a single essential molecular target of vz0825. The aligned sequences of the wild type genome and the mutant genome pool were compared with each other. For the identification of significant mutations the minimal frequency in the mutant genome pool was defined at 30%. A lower frequency would deliver too many non-relevant mutations. In the genome pool of the 15 resistant mutants only the gene with the code number VC_A0531, which corresponds to the homologue kdpD in E.coli, showed a significant mutation under the chosen parameters with frequency of 29.1%. The sequencing of the 15 resistant mutants showed, that 4 of them (26.7%) possess this particular modification.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Number in parentheses is the number of species in each category c

Number in parentheses is the number of species in each category cRate

of population variability for each order was calculated as the number of species that had variable responses among sites divided by the number of species that occurred at more than one site, times 100. “na” signifies that none of the species occurred at multiple sites Variability was also high among populations of species: RG7112 order for both endemic and introduced taxa, roughly one-third to two-thirds of the species that occurred at more than one site responded to ants differently at different sites (Tables 3, 4). This population-level variability was not dependent on which species of ant was invading. Of 195 comparisons of paired population responses, pairs https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk923295.html in which both populations (of the same arthropod species) were invaded by Argentine ants had a nearly identical ratio of same to different responses as did pairs of populations in which one was invaded by Argentine ants and the second was invaded by big-headed ants (Argentine—Argentine pairs exhibited the same response 49.1% of the time, Argentine—big-headed pairs exhibited the same response 46.8% of the time; Chi-square = 0.100, P = 0.752, Supplementary Table 6). Discussion Oceanic island faunas are well

known for their vulnerability to extinction. Island endemic species, for example, account for over 60% of documented animal extinctions worldwide (May et al. 1995). Many of these extinctions can be attributed at least in part to impacts resulting from introductions of wholly new faunal elements, such as terrestrial mammals (Simberloff 1995; Balmford 1996). Although arthropod extinctions and their causes are much more poorly documented, it has long been suggested that species endemic to remote

oceanic archipelagos possessing few or Edoxaban no native social insects are similarly ill-equipped, due to their evolutionary isolation, to withstand the novel predatory and competitive pressures of invasive ants (e.g., Zimmerman 1970; Howarth 1985; Gillespie 1999). In the present study examining the impacts of invasive ants on arthropod species in five Hawaiian communities, provenance was strongly Nutlin-3a ic50 associated with vulnerability. Both rare and non-rare endemic species were more likely than introduced species to be less abundant or absent in invaded plots, even after adjusting for such traditionally important factors as population density, trophic role and body size, and additionally controlling for ant density and major phylogenetic effects. This result is largely in accordance with the impressions and findings of biologists going back nearly a century (Krushelnycky et al. 2005).

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Aes may also play a role in the regulation

of raffinose m

Aes may also play a role in the regulation

of raffinose metabolism by inhibiting α-galactosidase [27]. However, these data were obtained from overexpression of aes from plasmids, thus raising the question of their relevance in vivo. An illustration of aes overexpression from the plasmid pACS2 [28] is shown in Additional file 1: Fig. S1. Secondly, a previous study of aes expression in the K-12 strain in vitro did not find significant effects on expression under the various metabolic, stress or environmental Fer-1 conditions tested http://​genexpdb.​ou.​edu/​, with the exception of aes overexpression observed in strains cultured in the presence of acetate [29]. Interestingly, esterase B exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the hydrolysis of 1-naphtyl acetate [9]. Finally, aes expression was found to be homogeneous see more across 10 representative strains of E. coli/Shigella cultured in 869 medium [30]. Our previous findings from the study of the genetic sequence surrounding aes did not suggest a role for the encoded protein in virulence. Indeed, comparisons, using the MaGe system, of 75 kbp of sequence upstream and downstream from aes in the 20 strains of E. coli [31] showed that aes is not located in/or adjacent to any regions linked to extraintestinal pathogeniCity specific to B2 strains (Additional file 2: Table S1). To gain insight into Aes function we tested the mutants

under different conditions. Firstly, we studied the in vitro growth of parent-type strains and their respective

mutants on several Selleck ARRY-162 carbon sources. We did not observe any difference between parent-type strains K-12 or CFT073 and their respective mutants K-12 Δaes and CFT073 Δaes in competition studies with LB and gluconate minimum media (data not shown). Additionally, growth of the strains CFT073, K-12, CFT073 Δaes and K-12 Δaes, in the presence of different carbon sources, was the same for parent and mutant strains. These results suggested that Aes does not play a role in regulation ioxilan of the growth of the strains in these conditions. Secondly, we studied whether Aes is involved in the virulence of E. coli in vivo using a septicaemia mouse model. Kaplan-Meyer curves obtained for CFT073 and its mutants CFT073 Δaes and CFT073 Δaes:Cm were similar, suggesting that Aes is not involved in the virulence process (p = 0.87) (Additional file 1: Fig. S2). Conclusion Selection tests and phylogenetic analyses indicate that aes is under purifying selection, showing a similar evolutionary history to that of the species. The differences in electrophoretic properties between the variant types B1 and B2 were consistent with analyses of the amino-acid sequence tree for Aes and protein structure models obtained for these variants. These findings illustrated the marked divergence of the B2 phylogenetic group from the A, B1 and D phylogenetic groups in this species.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Yan and Lin [34] investigated experiments on evaporation heat tra

Yan and Lin [34] investigated experiments on evaporation heat transfer in multi-port circular tube with an inner diameter of 2 mm. They proposed an equation for heat transfer similar to the Kandlikar [2] correlation,

including three non-dimensional numbers: the boiling number, the liquid Froude number, and the convection number (Table 3). Cooper’s correlation [35] that is developed and widely used for nucleate pool boiling heat transfer is recommended by Harirchian et al. [1] to predict flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels. However, Harirchian et al. [1] found that the Cooper’s correlation predicts their experimental results with 27% as mean absolute percentage error. Liu and Witerton eFT508 chemical structure [36] used Cooper’s correlation and introduced an enhancement factor due to the forced convective heat transfer mechanism caused by bubbles generated in the flow. Bertsch et al. [30] developed a generalized correlation for flow boiling heat transfer

in channels with hydraulic diameters ranging from 0.16 to 2.92 mm. The proposed correlation by Bertsch et al. [30] predicts these measurements with a mean absolute error less than 30%. Table 2 Correlations for boiling flow heat transfer coefficient Reference Fluid composition Description click here Correlation     Geometry Comment Parameter range   Warrier et al. [27] FC-84 Small rectangular parallel channels of D h = 0.75mm Single-phase forced convection and ZD1839 subcooled and saturated nucleate boiling 3 < x <55% Kandlikar and Balasubramanian [28] Water, refrigerants, and cryogenic fluids Minichannels and microchannels Flow boiling x <0.7 ~ 0.8 h sp is calculated Equation 7 Sun and Mishima [29] Water, refrigerants (R11, R12, R123, R134a, R141b, R22, R404a, R407c, R410a) and CO2 Minichannel diameters from 0.21 to 6.05 mm Flow boiling laminar flow region Re L < 2,000 and Re G < 2,000 Bertsch et al. [30] Hydraulic diameters ranging from 0.16 to 2.92 mm Minichannels Flow boiling and vapor quality 0 to 1 h nb is calculated by Cooper [35]: h sp = χ v,x h sp,go + (1 − χ v,x )h sp,lo (13) Temperature −194°C

to 97°C Heat flux 4–1,150 kW/m2 Mass flux 20–3,000 kg/m2s Lazarek and Black [31] R113 Macrochannels 3.15 mm inner diameter tube Saturated flow boiling – Gungor and Winterton [32] Water and Olopatadine refrigerants (R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, and R-114) Horizontal and vertical flows in tubes and annuli D = 3 to 32 mm Saturated and subcooled boiling flow 0.008 < p sat < 203 bar; 12 < G < 61.518 kg/m2s; 0 < x < 173%; 1 < q < 91.534 kW/m2 h tp = (SS 2 + FF 2)h sp (17) h sp is calculated Equation 6 S = 1 + 3, 000Bo0.86 (18) Liu and Witerton [36] Water, refrigerants and ethylene glycol Vertical and horizontal tubes, and annuli Subcooled and saturated flow boiling – h nb is calculated by Cooper [35] (Equation 11) Kew and Cornwell [33] R141b Single tubes of 1.39–3.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2008, 32:130–138 PubMedCrossRef 40 Deslo

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2008, 32:130–138.PubMedCrossRef 40. Deslouches B, Phadke SM, see more Lazarevic V, Cascio M, Islam K, Montelaro RC, et al.: De novo 4-Hydroxytamoxifen generation of cationic antimicrobial peptides: influence of length and tryptophan substitution on antimicrobial activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005, 49:316–322.PubMedCrossRef 41. Wu M, Hancock RE: Interaction of the cyclic antimicrobial cationic peptide bactenecin with the outer and cytoplasmic membrane. J Biol Chem 1999, 274:29–35.PubMedCrossRef 42. Phadke SM, Lazarevic V, Bahr CC, Islam K, Stolz DB,

Watkins S, et al.: Lentivirus lytic peptide 1 perturbs both outer and inner membranes of Serratia marcescens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002, 46:2041–2045.PubMedCrossRef 43. Loit E, Hincke MT, Altosaar I: Synthetic antimicrobial peptide L8 (MHLHKTSRVTLYLL) has membrane permeabilisation and bacterial aggregation activity. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2010, 35:410–411.PubMedCrossRef 44. Harms JM, Bartels H, Schlunzen F, Yonath A: Antibiotics acting on the translational machinery. J Cell Sci

2003, 116:1391–1393.PubMedCrossRef 45. Schmitz FJ, Higgins PG, Mayer S, Fluit AC, Dalhoff A: Activity of quinolones against gram-positive cocci: mechanisms of drug action and bacterial resistance. Eur GSK2118436 mouse J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002, 21:647–659.PubMedCrossRef 46. Reynolds PE: Structure, biochemistry and mechanism of action of glycopeptide antibiotics. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1989, 8:943–950.PubMedCrossRef 47. Tsang JC, Weber DA, Brown DA: Evidences for complex formation between polymyxin B and lipopolysaccharides from Serratia marcescens. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1976, 29:735–742. 48. Hancock RE: The bacterial outer membrane as a drug barrier. Trends Microbiol 1997, 5:37–42.PubMedCrossRef 49. Epand RM, Epand RF: Bacterial membrane lipids in the action of antimicrobial agents. J Pept Sci

2010. 50. Hancock RE, Chapple DS: Peptide antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999, 43:1317–1323.PubMed 51. Bechinger B: The structure, Florfenicol dynamics and orientation of antimicrobial peptides in membranes by multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999, 1462:157–183.PubMedCrossRef 52. Koo SP, Yeaman MR, Nast CC, Bayer AS: The cytoplasmic membrane is a primary target for the staphylocidal action of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein. Infect Immun 1997, 65:4795–4800.PubMed 53. Schneider T, Kruse T, Wimmer R, Wiedemann I, Sass V, Pag U, et al.: Plectasin, a fungal defensin, targets the bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II. Science 2010, 328:1168–1172.PubMedCrossRef 54. Casteels P, Tempst P: Apidaecin-type peptide antibiotics function through a non-poreforming mechanism involving stereospecificity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994, 199:339–345.PubMedCrossRef 55. Zaknoon F, Sarig H, Rotem S, Livne L, Ivankin A, Gidalevitz D, et al.: Antibacterial properties and mode of action of a short acyl-lysyl oligomer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009, 53:3422–3429.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment