Trials in which no response was made (missed targets) were 16% i

Trials in which no response was made (missed targets) were 1.6% in the endogenous predictive, 3.2% in the endogenous counter-predictive and 1.7% in the exogenous task. To explore the nature of facilitation and inhibition, and if these are separate or competing mechanisms, further analyses of the RTs were conducted (for similar analysis, see e.g. Chica et al., 2006). The three

conditions expected (Table 1) to show the slowest RTs in each task were compared (i.e. exogenous cued, endogenous predictive uncued and Rucaparib endogenous counter-predictive cued conditions). Overall the three conditions were significantly different (F2,22 = 4.34, P = 0.047,  = 0.28). More specifically, exogenous cued trials (338.71 ms) were significantly faster (P = 0.001, Bonferroni corrected) compared with endogenous counter-predictive cued trials (450.93 ms). Exogenous cued trials (338.71 ms) were not significantly faster (P = 0.23, Bonferroni corrected) compared with endogenous predictive uncued trials (439.17 ms), although a similar effect size. It can be concluded that exogenous inhibition (IOR) does not inhibit RTs as much as in voluntary inhibition, which may not be surprising. Comparison of the three

conditions predicted to show fastest RTs within their respective tasks were compared to explore the effects facilitation, and these three conditions showed no significant difference (P = 0.41). In particular, the comparison between expected trials in the two endogenous tasks (endogenous predictive cued vs. endogenous counter-predictive see more uncued) showed no significant difference

(P = 0.48, Bonferroni corrected) and no sign of IOR for unexpected trials (endogenous predictive uncued vs. endogenous counter-predictive cued; P = 1, Bonferroni corrected). This suggested IOR did not affect or interact with endogenous attention, even when informative cues are presented laterally. crotamiton Taken together, the behavioural data showed no presence of IOR at expected or unexpected locations. Figure 3 shows ERP waveforms in the exogenous task elicited by tactile target stimuli on cued (black line) and uncued trials (grey line). The attention effect here was present at the N80 component with enhanced amplitude for uncued compared with cued trials at electrodes contralateral (right panel) to target location (marked out on the C3/4c electrode). Figures 4 and 5 show ERP waveforms elicited to targets at expected (black line) and unexpected locations (grey line) in the endogenous tasks. In the endogenous predictive task (Fig. 4), the N80 effect was similar to that in the exogenous task with larger negativity for cued compared with uncued targets at electrodes contralateral to target location. Following on from the N80 there was a P100 attention effect in the endogenous predictive task, present at T7/8 electrodes contralateral to target presentation. In the endogenous counter-predictive task (Fig. 5), the earliest attention effect was also seen at the N80 component.

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“The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an

“The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an audience response

system (i.e. clickers) as an engaging tool for learning and examine its potential for enhancing continuing education (CE) activities. Attendees at a symposium were invited to utilise and evaluate the use of clickers. Electronic data relating to participant demographics and feedback were collected using clickers during the symposium. The 60 attendees who used the clickers were mostly pharmacists (76%) who worked in hospital pharmacy practice (86%). Attendees strongly agreed or agreed that clickers were easy to use (94%), enhanced interaction (98%), allowed comparison of knowledge with CSF-1R inhibitor that of their peers (78%), brought to attention their knowledge deficits (64%) and should be used again (94%). The innovative use of clickers at the symposium was

very well received by all attendees and offered a number of benefits, including the ability to provide a more engaging and interactive CE activity. “
“To establish a consensual and coherent ranking of healthcare programmes that involve the presence of ward-based and clinic-based clinical pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. This descriptive study was derived from a structured dialogue (Delphi technique) among directors of pharmacy department. We established a quantitative profile of healthcare programmes Pyruvate dehydrogenase at five sites that involved the provision of ward-based and clinic-based pharmaceutical care. A summary table of evidence established a unique

Ponatinib quality rating per inpatient (clinic-based) or outpatient (ward-based) healthcare programme. Each director rated the perceived impact of pharmaceutical care per inpatient or outpatient healthcare programme on three fields: health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. They agreed by consensus on the final ranking of healthcare programmes. A ranking was assigned for each of the 18 healthcare programmes for outpatient care and the 17 healthcare programmes for inpatient care involving the presence of pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. There was a good correlation between ranking based on data from a 2007–2008 Canadian report on hospital pharmacy practice and the ranking proposed by directors of pharmacy department. Given the often limited human and financial resources, managers should consider the best evidence available on a profession’s impact to plan healthcare services within an organization. Data are few on ranking healthcare programmes in order to prioritize which healthcare programme would mostly benefit from the delivery of pharmaceutical care by ward-based and clinic-based pharmacists.

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The standard treatment for uncomplicated UTIs is empiric therapy

The standard treatment for uncomplicated UTIs is empiric therapy with antibiotics (Hummers-Pradier & Kochen, 2000); however, the rising clinical failure rates caused by uropathogen resistance to antibiotics (Gupta, 2002; Prais et al., 2003; Foxman, 2010) has heightened the interest in the development of alternative therapies for the prevention and treatment of UTIs. A wide range of natural products have been screened for their

nutraceutical characteristics, including pomegranate (Punica granatum) (Macnab, 1992; Lansky & Newman, 2007). For example, it has been shown that pomegranate rind extract (PGRE), in combination with a range of metal salts, exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Braga et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2009), E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Duman et al., 2009), and Proteus mirabilis (McCarrell et al., 2008). We previously showed that the swimming and swarming motility of UPEC were hindered in the presence of cranberry compounds and that

this motility inhibition resulted from a decrease in the expression of fliC (Hidalgo et al., 2011). The overall aim of this study was to explore the effect of pomegranate materials (PMs) on UPEC. Three types of PMs were tested: PGRE, pomegranate tannins (PG), and pomegranate fruit powder (PGP). Specifically, we investigated whether exposure to PMs would result in the downregulation of the fliC gene of E. coli IDH tumor CFT073 and the corresponding drop in flagellin protein production and whether this would result in impaired bacterial motility. Because flagellar motility

has been suggested to enable UPEC to disseminate to the upper urinary tract (Lane et al., 2007a, b) and considering the current rising rates of antibiotic resistance, research on the effects of PMs on the gene regulation and phenotype of this ubiquitous uropathogenic bacterium is of great relevance. Escherichia coli strain CFT073 (ATCC 700928) (wild-type pyelonephritis isolate, laboratory collection) and CFT073 PfliC-lux (Lane et al., 2007a, b) (flagellin-transcription reporter vector; buy Gefitinib ampr) were used as the test bacteria in this study. Escherichia coli CFT073 ΔfliC (CFT073 fliC::aphA; kanr) was used as a negative control. Cultures were grown in LB medium (10 g L−1 tryptone, 10 g L−1 NaCl, and 5 g L−1 yeast extract). Planktonic bacterial cultures were incubated at 37 °C and rotary shaking at 200 r.p.m. unless otherwise indicated. Ampicillin and kanamycin were supplemented as needed at final concentrations of 100 and 50 μg mL−1, respectively. HPLC grade PG (Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Rhode Island) and PGP (Navitas Naturals) were solubilized in distilled, deionized water to concentrations of 1.5 and 100 mg mL−1, respectively, and sterilized by filtration. PGRE was prepared as described by McCarrell et al. (2008).

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Based on observational studies [6,15–19] and expert opinion, curr

Based on observational studies [6,15–19] and expert opinion, current US guidelines recommend immunization of patients with PPV-23 when CD4 counts are above 200 cells/μL [20], whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) states that the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine may be considered for people with HIV infection in WHO clinical stage 1 or, if CD4 testing is available, with a CD4 count above 500 cells/μL [21]. However, study quality and the risk of bias in these studies have not been assessed. Following the recent success of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing vaccine serotype-specific IPD in a cohort consisting primarily of HIV-infected Malawian adolescents [22],

a critical evaluation of PPV-23 effectiveness is needed. Immunity against capsulated bacteria such as pneumococci selleck screening library depends on the formation of opsonic antibodies, which can be produced by B cells in response to polysaccharide stimulation. These antigens are classified as T-cell independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, as they active B cells directly without assistance from T

cells [23]. Untreated HIV-infected subjects GSK 3 inhibitor have reduced antibody responses to PPV-23 [8], which correlate with falling CD4 cell counts [24,25]. HAART partially restores the immune system by reducing HIV replication and immune activation, and improving CD4 cell counts. However, certain abnormalities of the immune system persist even years after HAART initiation, including a low CD4:CD8 ratio, a low naïve:memory cell ratio, expansion of CD28 effector T cells and a reduced T cell repertoire [26]. HAART may affect qualitative aspects of the PPV-23 response by restoring the expression of certain genes used in the PPV-23 response to normal levels and by improving the specific immunoglobulin G response to vaccines, including PPV-23 [11–13,27,28]. Thus, when assessing PPV-23 effectiveness in persons with HIV infection, it

2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase should be borne in mind that the effects of CD4 cell count and HAART treatment may be important. A number of risk factors for pneumococcal disease have been identified over the past 20 years (Table 1). Awareness of these risk factors is critical in the assessment of PPV-23 studies because, unless adjusted for in the statistical analysis, any risk factor for pneumococcal disease may potentially confound the measurement of vaccine effectiveness. CD4 cell count is an example of a well-known risk factor for pneumonia and pneumococcal disease [4,6,16,17,29–31]. Other risk factors related to progression of HIV infection are HIV RNA [4,30,32,33] and clinical disease stage [16,17,29]. The aim of this review was to systematically identify and critically assess all peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature on observational studies and clinical trials of the effectiveness of PPV-23 in terms of clinical endpoints in HIV-infected adults.

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More specifically, PACAP−/− mice at postnatal day 7 showed respir

More specifically, PACAP−/− mice at postnatal day 7 showed respiratory arrest in response to hypoxia. In contrast, their response to hypercapnic conditions was the same as that of wild-type mice. Histological and real-time PCR analyses indicated that the catecholaminergic system in the medulla oblongata was impaired

in PACAP−/− PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor mice, suggesting that endogenous PACAP affects respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata via its action on the catecholaminergic system. We propose that disruption of this system is involved in the SIDS-like phenotype of PACAP−/− mice. Thus, disorders of the catecholaminergic system involved with O2 sensing could be implicated in underlying neuronal mechanisms responsible for SIDS. “
“Local Drug GSK126 chemical structure Safety Unit, Medicine & Research Department, Berlin-Chemie AG, Berlin, Germany Stressful experiences do not only cause peripheral changes in stress hormone levels, but also affect central structures such as

the hippocampus, implicated in spatial orientation, stress evaluation, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that formation of memory traces is dependent on hippocampal gamma oscillations observed during alert behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep. Furthermore, during quiescent behaviour, sharp wave-ripple (SW-R) activity emerges. These events provide a temporal window during which reactivation of memory ensembles occur. We hypothesized that stress-responsive Molecular motor modulators, such as corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the

neurosteroid 3α, 21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC) are able to modulate gamma oscillations and SW-Rs. Using in vitro hippocampal slices, we studied acute and subacute (2 h) impact of these agents on gamma oscillations in area cornu ammonis 3 of the ventral hippocampus induced by acetylcholine (10 μm) combined with physostigmine (2 μm). CORT increased the gamma oscillations in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Likewise, CRF augmented gamma oscillations via CRF type 1 receptor. Lastly, THDOC was found to diminish cholinergic gamma oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Neither CORT, CRF nor THDOC modulated gamma power when pre-applied for 1 h, 2 h before the induction of gamma oscillations. Interestingly, stress-related neuromodulators had rather mild effects on spontaneous SW-R compared with their effects on gamma oscillations. These data suggest that the alteration of hippocampal gamma oscillation strength in vitro by stress-related agents is an acute process, permitting fast adaptation to new attention-requiring situations in vivo. “
“UCL Ear Institute, London, UK Many neurons in the central auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC) to the auditory cortex (AC), respond less strongly to a commonly occurring stimulus than one that rarely occurs.

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These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream

These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream half-site of IR1 are necessary for the binding of IphR. The requirement of an additional half-site with a palindrome is uncommon in regulator binding sites, but the PcaU binding region is known to contain three perfectly conserved 10 bp repeats (R1, R2, and R3), which form a palindrome (R1 and R2) and a direct repeat (R3) located 11 bp downstream of the palindrome (Popp et al.,

Androgen Receptor Antagonist 2002; Jerg & Gerischer, 2008). R3 is a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome (R2) proximal to R3. The binding region of an IclR-type repressor, HmgR, also contains a 17-bp perfect palindromic motif and a 6-bp direct repetition of the palindrome (Arias-Barrau et al., 2004). However, the direct repeat motif located 4 bp upstream of the palindrome is

a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome distal Selleck Erlotinib to the direct repeat motif. Although there was no obvious sequence similarity between the binding regions of IphR and HmgR, and the downstream half-site of IR1 is not a perfect direct repeat of the downstream half-site of IR2, the arrangement of both binding regions appeared to be similar; positions of the palindrome and additional repeat each overlap the transcription start site and −10 region, respectively. IPA and/or its metabolite were suggested to be an inducer of the iph operon by the analyses of promoter and primer extension. We examined the ability of IPA and its analogous substrates: phthalate, TPA, PCA, and 3-hydroxybenzoate (100 µM) to inhibit the ht-IphR binding to the IPH-60 fragment by EMSA. Among these substrates, only IPA abolished the binding of ht-IphR (Fig. 4). In addition, the iphA promoter activity of iphA mutant (DEIA) cells harboring reporter plasmid pZSH2, which accumulates IPA during incubation with IPA, was increased ca. 90-fold (21 ± 2.0 mU mg−1) Methocarbamol in the presence

of IPA. These results indicated that IPA itself is the specific effector that modulates IphR binding to the operator, acting as an inducer of the iph operon. IphR negatively autoregulates the transcription of IPA catabolic operon, iphACBDR, in E6. In the absence of IPA, IphR binds to the operator region containing an inverted repeat (IR2) and a downstream half-site of another inverted repeat (IR1) to repress the transcription of iph operon. Although further analysis is necessary to clarify the manner of binding of IphR, this regulator protein might bind to the operator as a dimer of dimers, as ht-IphR was suggested to mainly form a dimer in solution. N.K. and K.I. contributed equally to this work. This study has no conflict of interest between authors. “
“The goal of this study was to develop and validate a novel fosmid-clone-based metagenome isotope array approach – termed the community isotope array (CIArray) – for sensitive detection and identification of microorganisms assimilating a radiolabeled substrate within complex microbial communities.

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Therefore this research, in addition to providing information to

Therefore this research, in addition to providing information to Australian policymakers regarding perceived pharmacists’ training requirements, could also be relevant to other countries AC220 in vitro planning to introduce expanded pharmacist prescribing. Evidence from the

UK has suggested that pharmacists undergoing supplementary prescribing training programmes have expressed concerns with the content of their training.[4, 21] Areas such as patient assessment and diagnosis, consultation skills and practical experience with physicians were valued in contrast to further education and training in pharmacology and pharmacokinetics.[4, 21] George et al. reported that training should place emphasis on evidence-based medicine, diagnosis and consultation

skills before independent prescribing was undertaken.[22] Reactions from the UK non-medical prescribing courses indicate that the period of learning in practice and the input by designated medical practitioners has been rated highly by students.[23, 24] An Australian study assessed hospital pharmacists’ experiences with a UK non-medical prescribing course.[25] This study reported an improvement in their communication and consultation skills, Lapatinib mw but identified concerns with the assessment requirements for the period of learning in practice. This highlighted the need for customisation of any prescribing course offered to Australian pharmacists.[25]

This study aimed to explore pharmacists’ perceived training needs for expanded prescribing roles prior to undertaking any training for such roles. This included identifying perceived differences in pharmacists’ training requirements dependent on their experience as pharmacists, professional practice area and their expressed preference for prescribing according to either a find more supplementary or independent model or both. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Curtin University, Western Australia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A review of the relevant literature aided the initial construction of the questionnaire which was then pre-piloted on 114 pharmacists in Western Australia.[1-3, 11] The questionnaire had nine sections related to pharmacist prescribing including a section on training requirements. These sections consisted of 82 statements measuring pharmacists’ attitudes on a five-point Likert scale (from one = strongly agree, to five = strongly disagree) and three yes/no questions.

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Results  Of the 157 children in the baseline sample, 144 (917%)

Results.  Of the 157 children in the baseline sample, 144 (91.7%) were followed up.

The overall P-CPQ score showed a large decrease following treatment, along with an increase in the number scoring 0 (no impact). Similar relative Ipilimumab changes were observed in the oral symptoms and emotional well-being subscales, whereas the other two subscales showed moderate decreases. All post-treatment FIS scores were lower than pre-treatment ones; all showed moderate effect sizes. The greatest relative changes were seen in the parental/family activity and parental emotions subscales. Conclusions.  The dental treatment of young children under GA is associated with considerable improvement in their OHRQoL. The P-CPQ and the FIS are valid and responsive to treatment-associated changes in young children with early childhood caries (ECC). “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 242–253 Aim.  This study aimed to investigate the role of dental fear (DF) and other personal characteristics in relation to dental behaviour management problems (DBMP). Design.  A study group of 230 patients

(7.5–19 years old; 118 girls), referred because of DBMP, was GSK2118436 ic50 compared to a reference group of 248 same-aged patients (142 girls) in ordinary dental care. Patients and their parents independently filled in questionnaires including measures of fear and anxiety, behavioural symptoms, temperamental reactivity, and emotion regulation. Results.  Study group patients referred because of DBMP differed from the reference group in all investigated aspects of personal characteristics. In the multivariate analyses, DF was the only variable with consistent discriminatory capacity through all age and gender subgroups. Aspects of anxiety, temperament, and behavioural symptoms contributed, but differently for different subgroups and at different levels of dental fear. Conclusions.  Among older children and adolescents, DF deserves to be re-established as the single most important discriminating variable for DBMP at clearly lower scores than commonly used. Further research should focus on the different patterns of DBMP development, considering Cell Penetrating Peptide various personal characteristics that may trigger, maintain,

or exacerbate young patients’ vulnerability to DF and DBMP. “
“Singapore is unique in that it is a 100% urban community with majority of the population living in a homogeneous physical environment. She, however, has diverse ethnicities and cultures as such; there may be caries risk factors that are unique to this population. The aims were to assess the oral health of preschool children and to identify the associated caries risk factors. An oral examination and a questionnaire were completed for each consenting child–parent pair. One hundred and ninety children (mean age: 36.3 ± 6.9 months) were recruited from six community medical clinics. Ninety-two children (48.4%) were caries active. The mean d123t and d123s scores were 2.2 ± 3.3 and 3.0 ± 5.6, respectively.

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Abbreviations ACSF artificial cerebrospinal fluid APP amyloid-pre

Abbreviations ACSF artificial cerebrospinal fluid APP amyloid-precursor protein

EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein 5-HT serotonin OMP olfactory marker protein QPCR quantitative real-time PCR TH tyrosine hydroxylase VGAT vesicular GABA transporter “
“Neuronal networks are thought to gradually adapt to altered neuronal activity over Talazoparib mw many hours and days. For instance, when activity is increased by suppressing synaptic inhibition, excitatory synaptic transmission is reduced. The underlying compensatory cellular and molecular mechanisms are thought to contribute in important ways to maintaining normal network operations. Seizures, due to their massive and highly synchronised discharging, probably challenge the adaptive properties of neurons, especially when seizures are frequent and intense – a condition common in early childhood. In the experiments reported here, we used rat and mice hippocampal slice cultures to explore the effects that recurring seizure-like activity has on the developing hippocampus. We found that developing networks adapted

rapidly to recurring synchronised activity in that the duration of seizure-like events was reduced by 42% after 4 h of activity. At the same time, the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal cells, the expression of biochemical biomarkers for glutamatergic

synapses and the branching of pyramidal cell dendrites selleck chemical were all dramatically reduced. Experiments also showed that the reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and postsynaptic density protein 95 expression were N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent. To explore calcium signaling mechanisms in network adaptation, we tested inhibitors of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase known to play roles in synaptic plasticity and activity-dependent dendrite remodeling. We found that FK506 was able to prevent all of the electrophysiological, Carnitine dehydrogenase biochemical, and anatomical changes produced by synchronised network activity. Our results show that hippocampal pyramidal cells and their networks adapt rapidly to intense synchronised activity and that calcineurin play an important role in the underlying processes. “
“Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is increasingly being employed as a treatment for parkinsonian symptoms, including tremor. The present studies used tremulous jaw movements, a pharmacological model of tremor in rodents, to investigate the tremorolytic effects of subthalamic DBS in rats.

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Once participants were aware of these services, they seemed to be

Once participants were aware of these services, they seemed to be accepting of them. However, future publicity campaigns should be designed in a way that addresses any misconceptions about professionalism and commercial issues. More research is needed using focus groups drawn from

a broader demography to inform quantitative studies in order to establish whether or not these views are common to the wider population of the UK. Linda Dodds Medicines Use and Safety Division, click here East and South East England Specialist Pharmacy Services, Kent, UK RPS guidance sets out the key information about medicines that should be shared at transfer of care Audit across 45 hospital sites indicated that only 32% of 2071 prescriptions were legible and unambiguous before pharmacy amendments Pharmacists can ensure prescription accuracy but are less able to add information related to changes to medicines It is well recognised that errors in transfer of medicines information across care settings can result in adverse events.1 In June 2012 the RPS published guidance check details to underpin the safe transfer of medicines information when patients move between care settings.1 A collaborative audit was proposed by the Medicines Use and Safety Division (MUSD) using standards taken from the RPS document (see Table 1). A small steering group of clinical pharmacy managers met

with the MUSD to agree methodology and pilot the audit protocol. Trusts were invited to collect data in November 2012. Data collection was supported by a paper form to be used on wards and in dispensary areas. This information was then transferred to an electronic spreadsheet and returned to MUSD. The MUSD team processed the data submitted by each trust and fed back to each participant a summary of their own results for local use. The data were then collated into a master spreadsheet and analysed against the agreed audit standards. Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) 2071 discharge prescriptions from 45 organisations were audited (1904 from acute trusts; 89 from community health services; 78 from mental health services). The average number of items per prescription

was 6.7. Pharmacists made 2880 contributions towards correcting or enhancing the accuracy of 1398 prescriptions (an average of 1.5 contributions per prescription overall). Pharmacy contributions were coded into 13 different categories and used to define and calculate a proxy measure for each standard relating to the prescription details. The average time to clinically screen a discharge prescription was 8.7 minutes, and to resolve identified problems 8.2 minutes. Table 1: Adherence to audit standards (2071 prescriptions audited) Standard (all 100%) Level achieved * Comment *Before pharmacy contributions to the prescription The majority of pharmacy contributions to discharge prescriptions focused on ensuring the prescription details were correct.

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