Patients from Lugo were Axitinib VEGFR1 assessed using high resolution B mode ultrasound, Hewlett Packard SONOS 5500, with a 10 MHz linear transducer as previously reported. cIMT was measured at the far wall of the right and left com mon carotid arteries, 10 mm from the carotid bifur cation, over the proximal 15 mm long segment. cIMT was determined as the average of three measurements in each common carotid artery. The final cIMT was the largest average cIMT. Agreement between the two US methods in patients with RA was previously reported. Two experts with extensive experience and close collaboration in the assessment of cIMT in RA from Santander and Lugo performed the studies. Statistical analysis Results are displayed as mean and standard deviation.
The association between the genotypes of the ZC3HC1 rs11556924 polymorphism and cIMT values was tested using the Mann Whitney test to compare be tween two groups. Comparisons of means was adjusted for sex, age at the time of the US study, follow up Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries time and traditional CV risk factors as potential confounders using analysis of covariance. Statistical Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries significance was defined as P 0. 05, and all analyses were performed using STATA statistical soft ware 12 SE. Results The genotyping success was 99% and ZC3HC1 rs11556924 genotype distribution was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Results of the comparison Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries between the different geno types of ZC3HC1 rs11556924 polymorphism according to cIMT are shown Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in Table 2. RA patients carrying the TT genotype had significantly higher cIMT values than those homozygous for the CC genotype while patients carrying the CT genotype had intermediate cIMT values.
Since sex, age at the time Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of US study, follow up time and traditional CV risk factors may act as potential confounders of the results derived from the US assessment, adjustment for these potential con founders was performed using an ANCOVA model. Interestingly, even after adjusting for potential con founders, patients carrying the TT genotype had signifi cantly higher cIMT values than those carrying the CC genotype showing that the effect conferred by the ZC3HC1 rs11556924 polymorphism is independent of the traditional CV risk factors. Discussion Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of pre mature mortality in patients with RA, being a conse quence of accelerated atherosclerosis. The augmented CV mortality observed http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Tubacin.html in this pathology is the result of a compound effect mediated by traditional CV risk factors, chronic inflammation and the genetic component. Since genes have been associated with an increased risk of CV disease in RA, in recent years several studies have been focused on the search for genetic markers that may improve the identification of RA patients at risk of experi encing CV events.