Placental growth factor (PlGF) has a major role in vasculogenesis

Placental growth factor (PlGF) has a major role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in human placenta. Low concentrations of PlGF and high concentrations of its inhibitor-soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) are linked with impaired angiogenesis and placental Selleckchem BVD-523 development, leading to the above pregnancy complications. The activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is the most potent of all angiogenic mediators, is partly modulated by PlGF. Although the mechanisms via which PlGF exerts its various effects are still under investigation, we herein discuss the

known actions exerted by this major mediator together with its results on fetal growth.”
“Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is frequently

used to identify populations at elevated cardiovascular risk. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate cIMT difference between RA and controls.

Methods: The literature was screened to identify all available studies comparing cIMT in RA patients and controls. Random effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall mean cIMT difference between both groups. Meta-regression was performed to assess the influence of age and the degree of comparability regarding established cardiovascular risk factors on cIMT difference. Potential publication bias was examined by a funnel plot and Egger test.

Results: KU-55933 order From 22 studies, cIMT data were available from 1384 RA patients and 1147 controls. In 17 of the studies, RA patients had a statistically significantly greater cIMT. The overall mean cIMT difference was 0.09 mm (956YoCI: 0.07-0.11 mm). Heterogeneity was observed (I-2 72.5%, P < 0.001). A likely source of heterogeneity was the difference in cardiovascular risk factors between RA patients and controls at

baseline, but not age. The funnel plot did not show a skewed or asymmetrical Fer-1 manufacturer shape, which was supported by the Egger’s test (P = 0.87).

Conclusions: Our observations support the current evidence base for an increased cardiovascular burden in RA and support the use of cIMT in observational studies in RA patients. The next step is to determine its utility as a surrogate cardiovascular risk marker in RA in prospective studies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 40:389-397″
“Clopidogrel, being a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor, is used widely around the world to reduce cardiovascular risks in patients with stroke, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this review firstly focuses on a comprehensive update of chromatography determination of clopidogrel and its metabolites as well as in human plasma, Wistar rat plasma, and in pharmaceutical preparations. It has been described using TLC, HPLC/MS, RP-HPLC, and GC/MS methods.

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