Resting peripheral blood T cells or T cells prestimulated with DC did not express IL-35 subunits upon PMA/Ionomycin stimulation (data not shown). In order to find out whether R-DC induced inhibitory T cells release IL-35, we co-immunopreciptated the cytokine out of SNs of T cells and R-DC or DC cocultures. As shown in Fig. 4C, R-DC-treated T cells release eminently more IL-35 as the DC stimulated T selleck compound cells. Also the anti-p35-mAb-coated beads used for immunoprecipitation of IL-35 out of the T-cell/R-DC SN show clear reactivity with the EBI3 Ab when
analyzed via flow cytometry and weak reactivity is observed with the respective beads precipitating out of the T-cell/DC SN (Fig. 4D). Only weak reactivity of the beads was observed with anti-p40 mAb (IL-12) and no reactivity was observed with anti-IL-27 mAb (Fig.
4E). As R-DC-treated T cells display a regulatory phenotype and release IL-35, the following experiments were designed to examine whether the observed effects were mediated by this cytokine. We added the inhibitory SN of the R-DC-induced Treg to an allogeneic MLR together with a polyclonal Ab to EBI3 or a mAb against p35. We could show that the inhibitory effect of the SN from T cells was abolished and proliferation restored. Figure 5A and B illustrate that Ab directed against both subunits were able to neutralize the inhibitory capacity of the T-cell/R-DC SN, whereas Ab against IL-12p40 or IL-27 did not alter the inhibitory function of the SN (Fig. 5C and D). In addition, purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also express EBI3 and gain regulatory function upon stimulation with R-DC and the inhibitory GPCR Compound Library concentration effect of the SN can be reverted by Ab against IL-35 (EBI3 and p35; Supporting Information Fig. 5). Next we used the p35-depleted SN (from Fig. 4), which was no longer inhibitory in an MLR as depicted in Fig. 5E, whereas the T-cell/R-DC SN, precipitated with a control Ab or mock treated, was still inhibitory. Thus the inhibitory effect of R-DC-induced Treg is mediated by IL-35. IL-12p40- or IL-27-depleted SN of a T-cell/R-DC coculture was still Nutlin-3 manufacturer inhibitory in an MLR (Fig. 5 F and G) and Supporting Information
Fig. 6 shows that IL-12 can be precipitated with the utilized anti-p40 mAb. We have recently found that R-DC work via B7-H1 and sialoadhesin, because blocking of the accessory molecules B7-H1 and sialoadhesin on R-DC with specific mAb against both receptors reverted the inhibitory phenotype of R-DC 12. Now neutralizing Ab to B7-H1 and sialoadhesin were added to the T-cell/R-DC coculture. The production of EBI3 and therefore the production of IL-35 could be effectively blocked by a combination of the two mAb as presented in Fig. 6A. P35 expression did not change considerably with addition of the neutralizing Ab (Fig. 6A right column). The neutralizing Ab were added to a T-cell/R-DC coculture and the cell culture SN of these cells was able to inhibit T-cell proliferation, the Ab alone partially reverted the inhibitory effect.