Small amounts of 2-O-linked Araf units were also present. The 13C NMR spectrum (Fig. 4C) of PF is in good agreement with the linkage analysis observed in the methylation analysis, with more intense anomeric signals of α-l-Araf units (at δ 107.3 and 108.3), β-Arap units (at δ 100.1) and β-d-Galp units (at δ 104.4) than that observed for
the galactoarabinoglucuronoxylan present in fraction STK-1000R. Finally, according to monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis and spectral data, fractions STK-1000R and PF contain galactoarabinoglucuronoxylans, with (1 → 4)-linked β-d-Xylp residues in the backbone, carrying branches exclusively in O-2. That present in STK-1000R is less branched, with side-chains formed by (1 → 5)-linked
α-l-Araf residues and (1 → 4)-linked α-d-GlcpA residues and with non-reducing end units formed 3-Methyladenine clinical trial by α-l-Araf, β-Arap, β-d-Galp, α-d-GlcpA and 4-O-Me-α-d-GlcpA. Concerning fruits, acidic heteroxylans have been found only in monocotyledon pineapple (Smith & Harris, 1995), and in dicotyledons olive pulp (Vierhuis, Schols, Beldman, & Voragen, 2001), katamfe (Adesina & Higginbotham, 1977), winter melon (Mazumder, Lerouge, Loutelier-Bourhis, Driouich, & Ray, 2005) and in Siberian apricot (Odonmazig et al., 1990). With the exception of acidic heteroxylan from winter melon, where the branch point was unknown, the others were branched at O-2 and O-3. This is a usual pattern of branching in acidic heteroxylans that contain both Ara and GlcA units. In contrast, the acidic heteroxylans studied herein from the tamarillo pulp had a main chain branched only at O-2. The acidic heteroxylans from tamarillo pulp Raf inhibitor had a small amount of Galp found only as the non-reducing end in the methylation analysis. Due to the absence of other galactose derivatives in this analysis, which could possibly have arisen from a main chain of a contaminating pectic arabinogalactan, we believe that these Galp units belong to the acidic heteroxylan
structure. A detailed examination of the literature reveals that galactose occurs in the structural Verteporfin research buy features of some xylans isolated from various botanical sources. In these studies, galactose units were also found as non-reducing end-groups and were present in the pyranoside conformation ( Buchala, 1973, Buchala et al., 1972, Cipriani et al., 2008, Ebringerová et al., 1992, Shatalov et al., 1999 and Woolard et al., 1977). Regarding the biological properties of acidic heteroxylans, studies have already showed anti-ulcer (Cipriani et al., 2008), immunological (Ebringerová et al., 1998 and Proksch and Wagner, 1987), anti-complementary (Samuelsen et al., 1999) and antitussive activities (Kardosová, Maloviková, Pätoprstý, Nosál’ová, & Matáková, 2002). In this context and considering the use in folk medicine of tamarillo fruit, we also evaluated the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of the galactoarabinoglucuronoxylan present in STK-1000R fraction.