our data, which indicate a function of OmcA under


our data, which indicate a function of OmcA under manganese-reducing conditions, are in line with the results obtained previously by Myers & Myers (2001, 2003b). The production of SO_2931strep and SO_1659strep was shown to be less efficient when compared with OmcA production. Nevertheless, the production of SO_2931 or SO_1659 was detectable, but never resulted in a significantly different phenotype compared with the ΔOMC mutant. For the diheme cytochrome selleck chemicals llc SO_2931, this could be due to a periplasm-oriented localization in the OM. So far, we can only speculate that these proteins might be involved in other electron transfer pathways or do not have a function in the physiology of S. oneidensis in general. Interestingly, a low-level reduction of birnessite and an anode surface were observed for the ΔOMC mutant. This could be due to the production of endogenous shuttling components. Still,

our data indicate that if electron shuttles are the reason for this reduction, they are at least in part not dependent on the interaction with OM cytochromes and therefore seem to be OM permeable. The authors thank Prof. Fuchs and Prof. Majzlan for fruitful discussions. J.G. is indebted to the LANDESSTIFTUNG Baden-Württemberg and the German Science Foundation (DFG) for facilitating the analysis entailed in this article. “
“Acidification results from the excessive accumulation PARP inhibitor of volatile fatty acids and the breakthrough of buffering capacity in anaerobic digesters. However, little is known about the identity of the acidogenic bacteria involved. Here, we identified an active fermentative bacterium during acidification in a thermophilic anaerobic digester by sequencing and phylogenetic

analysis of Methamphetamine isotopically labeled rRNA. The digestion sludge retrieved from the beginning of pH drop in the laboratory-scale anaerobic digester was incubated anaerobically at 55 °C for 4 h during which 13C-labeled glucose was supplemented repeatedly. 13CH4 and 13CO2 were produced after substrate addition. RNA extracts from the incubated sludge was density-separated by ultracentrifugation, and then bacterial communities in the density fractions were screened by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA transcripts. Remarkably, a novel lineage within the genus Thermoanaerobacterium became abundant with increasing the buoyant density and predominated in the heaviest fraction of RNA. The results in this study indicate that a thermoacidophilic bacterium exclusively fermented the simple carbohydrate glucose, thereby playing key roles in acidification in the thermophilic anaerobic digester.

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