The action of these translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases m

The action of these translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases may increase mutagenesis under

starvation or antibiotic stress (Bull et al., 2001; McKenzie et al., 2001; Yeiser et al., 2002; Tegova SB431542 nmr et al., 2004; Cirz et al., 2005; Pérez-Capilla et al., 2005; Tark et al., 2005; Petrosino et al., 2009). Also, endogenous oxidative and alkylation damage may induce mutations under stressful conditions (Rebeck & Samson, 1991; Foster & Cairns, 1992; Bridges, 1993; Mackay et al., 1994; Bridges et al., 1996; Saumaa et al., 2002, 2007; Ciofu et al., 2005; Mandsberg et al., 2009). The occurrence of mutations in stationary-phase populations has also been explained by alternative models (Andersson et al., 1998; Hendrickson et al., 2002; Roth et al., 2006). In the amplification model, growth and increased lac copy number precede Lac+ reversion in the Escherichia coli FC40 strain and stimulate revertant yield by providing more targets. The Pol IV-dependent mutagenesis observed in E. coli is thought to occur in clones whose lac amplification includes the nearby Pol IV gene dinB (Slechta et al., 2002). Roth et al. (2006) emphasize that both mutation rate and selection influence the mutant frequency in a population, and their Staurosporine effects are difficult to separate. For example, mutants resistant to rifampicin

(Rifr) have been shown to be accumulating in aging, nongrowing colonies of E. coli, and this was initially attributed to stress-induced general mutagenesis in nongrowing cells (Taddei et al., 1995, 1997; Bjedov et al., 2003). Later, evidence was presented that the accumulation of Rifr mutants was due to selection because they grew faster than parent cells during the aging period (Wrande et al., 2008). Despite the controversy in the interpretation of the rate of mutations in stationary-phase Benzatropine populations, we cannot ignore evidence supporting the idea that different mechanisms are responsible

for the appearance of mutations in actively growing and stationary-phase populations. For example, the spectra of mutations of Lac+ revertants in starving E. coli strain FC40 differ from those identified in growing cells (Foster & Trimarchi, 1994; Rosenberg et al., 1994). In Pseudomonas putida, one particular C-to-A transversion was predominant among phenol-degrading (Phe+) mutants that arose in the starving populations, whereas various deletions were the most frequent mutations in growing cultures (Kasak et al., 1997). Moreover, the spectrum of stationary-phase mutations among early arising mutants differed from that of late arising ones, indicating that mutational processes in cells that have been starved for short periods are not entirely compatible with prolonged starvation (Saumaa et al., 2002).

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