The gene encoding FomA was cloned into an E. coli vector-based system  for generation click here of vaccines against bacteria-induced gum inflammation ( Fig. 5) and production of antibodies against VSC emission ( Fig.
6). The E. coli vector-based system has been used in our laboratory to develop various non-invasive vaccines . The E. coli vector (E. coli intact particle) has all E. coli components and exhibits an excellent and natural adjuvant effect that accelerates the evaluation of protein immunogenicity . Most E. coli strains are harmless and are part of the normal flora in human. In addition, an UV-irradiated and non-pathogenic E. coli BL21(DE3) strain was used in this study to construct vaccines targeting FomA. The fact that F. nucleatum is not an indigenous
bacterium in murine oral cavities has hindered the development of animal models of abscesses and halitosis for evaluation of vaccines and drugs against oral infections. In humans, gum pockets appear in an empty space between the root of the tooth and the top edge of the gum. These pockets trap bacteria and are the perfect incubators for bacteria to grow biofilm and produce VSCs. An oral colonization model in which bacteria are administered directly into the mouse oral cavity using PBS selleckchem with carboxymethylcellulose  and  has been commonly used for studying oral infections. Undoubtedly, the model represents the natural route of oral infection. However, the ability to quantify the
bacterial colonization is limited due to the uneven distribution of infected sites. Furthermore, unlike humans, mice do not physically secrete abundant saliva . Thus, it may be inappropriate to use this model for studying the in vivo effect of vaccine-induced secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) on bacterial colonization. Alternatively, injection of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis into gum tissues of ICR mice recapitulates a model of infection in a gum pocket , validating our use of this model for quantification of gum inflammation ( Fig. 4 and Fig. 5) in this study. It has been shown that prior exposure of mice to F. nucleatum modulates host response to not P. gingivalis . All the T-cell clones derived from mice immunized with F. nucleatum followed by P. gingivalis were T-helper type 2 (Th2) subsets, while those from mice immunized with P. gingivalis alone belonged to T-helper type 1 (Th1) subsets based on the flow cytometric analysis and cytokine profiles . Other studies have shown that exposure of mice to F. nucleatum prior to P. gingivalis interfered with the opsonophagocytosis function of sera against P. gingivalis . However, our results demonstrated that mice immunized with E. coli BL21(DE3) FomA did not increase the severity of P. gingivalis-induced gum swelling ( Fig. 5A), suggesting that vaccination with F. nucleatum FomA may not alter the host susceptibility to other oral bacteria. After injection of F. nucleatum and P.