This colocalizes the two enzymes and is thought to lead to a conformational change in PKB/Akt allowing PDK1 to phosphorylate the activation loop of PKB/Akt. PDK1 has subsequently been shown to phosphorylate and activate a whole group of related protein kinases belonging to the AGC kinase family at their activation, or T loop site. This includes isoforms of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, serum and glucocorticoid induced kinase, conventional, novel and atypical isoforms of protein kinase C, and PKC related kinases PRK1 and PRK2.
These protein kinases regulate diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, metabolism and translation. Like other members of the AGC kinase family PDK1 requires phosphorylation of PARP Inhibitors its activation loop site S241 for catalytic activity. Although initially thought to be a constitutively active kinase, more recent evidence suggests that its activity might be regulated by phosphorylation under some circumstances. Regulation of PDK1 action instead occurs at the level of PDK1 targets: recruitment of PKB/ Akt to the plasma membrane and a subsequent conformational change render PKB/Akt a target for PDK1. Other PDK1 substrates like S6K, SGK, and RSK do not have a PH domain and do not bind PIP3, nor is their phosphorylation by PDK1 directly stimulated by PIP3.
Instead, the phosphorylation of their T loop by PDK1 seems to be dependent on the phosphorylation of these enzymes at a C terminal Ser/Thr residue termed the hydrophobic motif Ridaforolimus site. Phosphorylation of the HM site by a distinct kinase allows PDK1 to bind to its targets through its specific substrate docking site. The phosphorylation of the HM in PKCs is more complicated, and may not be required for PDK1 binding ? indeed PKC?, PKC? and PRKs 1&2 have an acidic residue that replaces the HM phosphorylation site. Nevertheless, it seems that for optimal activity all isoforms require phosphorylation at their T loop site by PDK1 or another kinase. Studies using PDK1 / and PDK1 murine ES cells revealed that PDK1 is absolutely required for the activation of PKB/Akt, S6K, and RSK.
Furthermore, stability and phosphorylation of several PKC isoforms and of PRKs are vastly reduced in PDK1 ES cells. However, there has been speculation about whether other related members of the AGC kinase family are also PDK1 targets. cAMP dependent protein kinase for example was FDA shown to be an in vitro substrate for PDK1, but phosphorylation of T197, the T loop site of PKA, as well as PKA activity were found to be similar in PDK1 and PDK1 / ES cells. Additionally, mitogen and stress activated protein kinase 1 also possesses a potential PDK1 target T loop motif, but MSK1 activity was comparable in PDK1 and PDK1 / ES cells. While gene knockout technology, or knockin of an inactive version, can give valuable information about the role of a given protein, the lack of temporal control hampers the study of dynamic processes.
Conditional alleles overcome this limitation to some extent, but it generally requires several hours to change the protein levels in the Ridaforolimus cell. Moreover, the deletion of the entire protein of interest can often have effects that are different to merely inhibiting their catalytic activity. Compensation by other related proteins can mask events that are usually mediated by the protein of interest, or changes in the levels of other proteins can give rise to additional unexpected phenotypes.