These differences may reflect profound differences in the regulation of some proteases between human and porcine thyrocytes CHIR98014 solubility dmso Because the expression of DPP IV and APN is linked to transformation of human thyrocytes. Thyrocytes from animals play an important role in the study of physiological processes because inter-individual variations in animals usually are lower than in humans. Inter-individual variations in protein expression, iodide uptake, proliferation and other physiological reactions are more pronounced in normal learn more human thyroid tissue

samples and isolated human thyrocytes than in porcine ones [31]. Causes of different physiological reactions among individuals include genetic factors and environmental factors (dietary iodine, smoking, infections, etc.). Due to these limitations, porcine, bovine, ovine and canine thyrocytes are common substitutes for normal human cells because only animal thyrocyte lines able to form follicles and synthesize

thyroid hormones are available [1, 32]. Despite general similarities in morphology, synthesis of thyroid hormone and the reaction to TSH, several differences between the species, including molecular differences in proteins, in expression and in reaction to growth factors, have been identified [2, 33–36]. In our study, lysosomal protease activity of DPP II was strongly expressed in thyrocytes of all species. This lack of interspecies PRKACG differences was also reported in another study on the expression pattern of the lysosomal proteases cathepsin B and elastase in the placenta of mice, rats, guinea pigs and marmosets [37]. In contrast, we saw expression of DPP IV and APN only in porcine thyrocytes but not in thyrocytes from other species. In human thyroid glands, consistent with previous studies, thyrocytes lacked both enzyme activities

and only endothelial cells showed reactivity for DPP IV [38]. Pronounced interspecies variations in the expression of the membrane-associated proteases were also reported by Gossrau and Graf, who investigated cellular expression of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, aminopeptidase A, APN and DPP IV activities [37]. The observed differences in protease activities persisted in cultured porcine cells when cultured in the presence of TSH. As the membrane-associated proteases DPP IV and APN localize to the apical membrane, they are only expressed when follicles are formed. This indicates that, contrary to human thyrocytes, they are markers of differentiation, not de-differentiation. Expression of APN in porcine thyrocytes has also been reported by Feracci et al. [27]. Because of these observed differences, porcine thyrocytes are not suitable models for studies on the regulation of membrane-protease in human thyrocytes. The determination of actual protease activity in this study, instead of merely detecting protein or mRNA, allows a direct assessment of relevant functional activity.

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