This sex difference in variability was reaffirmed by Thorndike (1910) and by many subsequent authorities including Penrose (1963, p. 186) “the consistent story has been that men and women have nearly identical IQs but that men have a broader distribution…the larger variation among men means that there are more men than women at either extreme of the IQ distribution”. Others who have asserted this conclusion include Herrnstein and Murray, 1994 and Lehrke, 1997, Jensen (1998, p. 537), and Ceci and Williams (2007, p. 223): “all sides in the gender wars agree that there is greater variability in male distributions
of many abilities.” This conclusion has recently been affirmed once again by Deary, Penke, and Johnson (2010): “Males have a slight but consistently wider distribution than females at both ends of the range. There is a large research see more GSK458 clinical trial literature on sex differences in various cognitive abilities. Kimura, 1999 and Kimura, 2002 lists five abilities on which males obtain higher average means than females: spatial orientation,
visualization, line orientation, mathematical reasoning, and throwing accuracy; and five abilities on which females obtain higher average means than males: object location memory, perceptual speed, verbal memory, numerical calculation, and manual dexterity. In this paper we examine sex differences in intelligence in China with a view to determining how far these
are consistent with those found in studies in the United States and other western countries on which most of the conclusions Tacrolimus (FK506) have been based. A Chinese sample of 788 children in the sixth grade aged 11–13 years with a mean age of 12.5 was tested with the Chinese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 2011–13. The sample was obtained from the Jintan Child Cohort Study. The Wechsler (1974) original sample in this study comprised 1656 Chinese children (55.5% boys, 44.5% girls) consisting of 24.3% of all children in this age range in the Jintan region, which is located in Jiangsu, China. This sample includes children from city, town, and village populations; in addition, the demographics of Jiangsu are similar to those found on the national level, making this sample likely to be fairly representative in terms of sex ratio, urban versus rural population ratio, ethnic majority, and others. The Jintan Child Cohort Study is an on-going prospective longitudinal study with the aim of exploring early health risk factors in the development of child cognition and behavior. Details of this study have been described in a previous publication (Liu, McCauley, Zhao, Zhang, & Pinto-Martin, 2010). The cohort took their first IQ test (the WPPSI) at age 6 years and the sex differences have been given by Liu and Lynn, 2011, Liu and Lynn, 2013 and Liu et al., 2012.