Trials in which no response was made (missed targets) were 16% i

Trials in which no response was made (missed targets) were 1.6% in the endogenous predictive, 3.2% in the endogenous counter-predictive and 1.7% in the exogenous task. To explore the nature of facilitation and inhibition, and if these are separate or competing mechanisms, further analyses of the RTs were conducted (for similar analysis, see e.g. Chica et al., 2006). The three

conditions expected (Table 1) to show the slowest RTs in each task were compared (i.e. exogenous cued, endogenous predictive uncued and Rucaparib endogenous counter-predictive cued conditions). Overall the three conditions were significantly different (F2,22 = 4.34, P = 0.047,  = 0.28). More specifically, exogenous cued trials (338.71 ms) were significantly faster (P = 0.001, Bonferroni corrected) compared with endogenous counter-predictive cued trials (450.93 ms). Exogenous cued trials (338.71 ms) were not significantly faster (P = 0.23, Bonferroni corrected) compared with endogenous predictive uncued trials (439.17 ms), although a similar effect size. It can be concluded that exogenous inhibition (IOR) does not inhibit RTs as much as in voluntary inhibition, which may not be surprising. Comparison of the three

conditions predicted to show fastest RTs within their respective tasks were compared to explore the effects facilitation, and these three conditions showed no significant difference (P = 0.41). In particular, the comparison between expected trials in the two endogenous tasks (endogenous predictive cued vs. endogenous counter-predictive see more uncued) showed no significant difference

(P = 0.48, Bonferroni corrected) and no sign of IOR for unexpected trials (endogenous predictive uncued vs. endogenous counter-predictive cued; P = 1, Bonferroni corrected). This suggested IOR did not affect or interact with endogenous attention, even when informative cues are presented laterally. crotamiton Taken together, the behavioural data showed no presence of IOR at expected or unexpected locations. Figure 3 shows ERP waveforms in the exogenous task elicited by tactile target stimuli on cued (black line) and uncued trials (grey line). The attention effect here was present at the N80 component with enhanced amplitude for uncued compared with cued trials at electrodes contralateral (right panel) to target location (marked out on the C3/4c electrode). Figures 4 and 5 show ERP waveforms elicited to targets at expected (black line) and unexpected locations (grey line) in the endogenous tasks. In the endogenous predictive task (Fig. 4), the N80 effect was similar to that in the exogenous task with larger negativity for cued compared with uncued targets at electrodes contralateral to target location. Following on from the N80 there was a P100 attention effect in the endogenous predictive task, present at T7/8 electrodes contralateral to target presentation. In the endogenous counter-predictive task (Fig. 5), the earliest attention effect was also seen at the N80 component.

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