Up to 85% of infants born to women infected with rubella in their

Up to 85% of infants born to women infected with rubella in their first trimester of pregnancy suffer serious birth defects.[5, 14] The sustained varicella

transmission among crew members with different occupations suggested close interactions outside the work environment and high susceptibility rates. A past cruise ship varicella outbreak investigation found <1% of crew members were acutely infected with Talazoparib mouse varicella and 12% were susceptible.[12] The majority of crew members were from tropical countries, where the epidemiology of varicella differs from that of the United States,[5] and were estimated to be two to three times more susceptible to varicella than an age-comparable US-born population.[12] Other recent studies have also documented varicella susceptibility among crew members originating from tropical countries[15, 16] and one study suggested that testing cruise members for immunity to varicella, followed by vaccination if necessary, is a cost-effective prevention measure.[16] This investigation had a limited ability to accurately determine the risk to passengers in whom no VPD cases were detected based on passive surveillance alone. In addition,

the number of varicella learn more vaccines administered by the cruise line to crew members because of ongoing transmission was not ascertained. Despite these limitations, this investigation demonstrated the large effort and resources required to implement surveillance, alert passengers, and vaccinate crew members to halt transmission of VPD among crew and prevent spread to passengers. Although no cases were detected among passengers, the potential for infection existed among those who were susceptible, emphasizing the importance of ensuring immunity to these VPD, especially measles Histidine ammonia-lyase and rubella, among both crew and passengers. The World Health Organization Region of the Americas

has interrupted transmission of endemic measles and rubella, achieving the 2000 measles and 2010 rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination goals. However, recent outbreaks of measles in the United States resulting from importation, have demonstrated the ongoing threat of international introduction and transmission of VPD among susceptible individuals.[17] Because of upcoming sporting and cultural events in the Americas, the PAHO recently urged all travelers to ensure immunity to measles and rubella before arriving in the region.[18] This message is also relevant to all persons aboard cruise ships, as evidenced by ongoing reports of measles and rubella cases received by CDC QS since 2006.

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  4. We evaluated both the total number of women whose mean [THg] was
  5. Other studies in developing countries have also suggested that wa
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