Vimentin was reported positive in 0-21% of ChRCC, CD10 in 0-33% of ChRCC,
CK7 in 60-100% of ChRCC, CK8 in 50% of ChRCC, CK18 in 100% of ChRCC, CK19 in 33% of ChRCC, CK20 in 12.5% of ChRCC, EMA 75-100% of ChRCC and parvalbumin 100% of ChRCC. Sometimes ChRCC can be mistaken for renal oncocytoma [10, 11] (Table 1). Table 1 Expression of immunohistological markers of ChRCC Immunohistological markers of ChRCC CK 7 CK 8 CK 18 CK 19 CK 20 Vimentin EMA CD10 Parvalbumin Positive reactivity (%) click here 60-100 50 100 33 12.5 0-21 75-100 0-33 100 Clinical and Histomorphological Features Prognosis in ChRCC is better than in other types of RCC. Five- and 10-year DFS for chromophobe RCC was 83.9% and 77.9%, respectively . The median time from nephrectomy to metastasis detection, and from metastasis detection to death were twice as long for ChRCC than for other subtypes of RCC (papillary, clear cell RCC) . In univariate analysis: sarcomatoid change (p < 0.001), microscopic necrosis (p = 0.019), tumor size
(p = 0.025), pT stage (3.4 vs. 1.2; p = < 0.001), broad alveolar growth (p = 0.012), vascular invasion (p = 0.020), and Fuhrman nuclear grade (grade 4 vs.3 vs 2; p < 0.001) were associated with aggressive ChRCC behavior. Independent predictors (Multivariable Cox ARRY-162 manufacturer Regression) of aggressive ChRCC included: pT stage (pT 3.4 vs. pT 1.2; p = 0.025, relative hazard 3.4), sarcomatoid change ioxilan (p = 0.013, relative hazard 4.7) and microscopic necrosis
(p = 0.020, relative hazard 3.5) . Other factors like: age, sex, histologic subtyping by clear, eosinophilic or mixed cell types, tubulocystic pattern, degenerate or symplastic atypia were not predictors of chromophobe RCC behavior. The patients with aggressive phenotype of chromophobe RCC may be candidates for selleckchem adjuvant therapies as they become available . ChRCCs are hyperechogenic in ultrasound examination, CT imaging or MRI demonstrate homogeneous enhancement. A spoke-wheel pattern of contrast enhancement is characteristic for ChRCC and for onkocytoma . Most of ChRCCs are sporadic, but sometimes they are associated with BHD (Birt-Hogg-Dubè) syndrome . Genetic Syndrome associated with chromophobe RCC BHD syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that includes: benign skin tumor (skin tags, fibrofolliculomas), renal epithelial neoplasms (ChRCC, oncocytoma) and spontaneous pneumothorax. Renal tumors are often multifocal and bilateral. BHD gene encodes potential tumor suppressor protein – folliculin on 17p11 . ChRCCs is characterized by length polymorphism such as loss of chromosomal material involving chromosomes: 1, 2, 3p, 6, 10, 13, 17p, 17q and 21 [16, 17]. It may be helpful in distinguishing between clear, papillary and chromophobe subtypes of RCC.