We analysed the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Vβ 2, 3, 5·1

We analysed the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Vβ 2, 3, 5·1, 5·2, 8, 11, 12, 17 or 24. Paired analysis of Vβ expression before and after SLA stimulation revealed the specific expansion of CD4+ T cells expressing check details Vβ 5·2, 11, 12 and 17 among the patient group (Fig. 3) using a significance of P < 0·05. In all four cases, > 80% of the individuals displayed an antigen-induced expansion of

the specific Vβs, while the other Vβ-expressing T cells expand only in some patients in response to in vitro stimulation (Fig. 3). To determine the activation state and previous antigenic experience of CD4+ T cells expressing distinct Vβ from CL patients, we evaluated activation and memory molecule expression (HLA-DR and CD45RO, respectively) within each Vβ subpopulation.

The proportion of specific Vβ-expressing CD4+ T cells expressing HLA-DR or CD45RO was compared among the various Vβ-expressing T cell populations without in vitro stimulation as a measure of in vivo experience in actively infected patients. CD4+ T cell subpopulations defined by Vβ 5·2, 11 and 24 expressed a higher percentage of CD45RO+ T cells compared to all the other Vβ-expressing populations studied (Fig. 4a). Interestingly, the same three subpopulations defined by T cells expressing Vβ 5·2, 11 and 24 had a significantly higher expression of HLA-DR compared to CD4+ T cells expressing Vβ 2 and Vβ 5·1. All other Cobimetinib CD4+ T cell populations displayed frequencies statistically equivalent to one another (Fig. 4b). Thus, two indicators of previous in vivo antigenic stimulation (CD45RO, a memory/experienced T cell marker, and HLA-DR, a late activation marker) are increased in CD4+ T cell subpopulations expressing TCR Vβ regions 5·2, 11 and 24, compared to other subpopulations among actively infected leishmaniasis Tau-protein kinase patients. Effective CD4+ T cell responses and subsequent cytokine production are critical for the cure,

and possibly the exacerbation, of human leishmaniasis. We have shown previously that CD4+ Th1 T cells are associated with human CL [11], and that these cells are also accompanied by the production of IL-10 [10]. In addition to co-regulation of the frequency of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing T cells, we also identified co-regulation of IL-10-producing T cells [11]. Interestingly, higher frequencies of IFN-γ-producing T cells were also associated with lesion size [15]. Thus, in attempts to identify possible specific T cell subpopulations that could be involved in these responses, we measured the frequency of individual Vβ-expressing CD4+ T cell subpopulations producing inflammatory (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines.

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